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      Prevalence and Risk Factors of Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis in 1,200 Chinese Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

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          Abstract

          Aims: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is a common and potentially reversible cause of end-stage renal failure. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of ARAS in Chinese patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected coronary heart disease (CAD), or for acute or chronic myocardial infarction. Methods: Selective renal arteriography was performed immediately after coronary angiography in 1,200 consecutive patients. Medical history and laboratory data were obtained before the procedure. Significant renal artery stenosis was defined as ≧50% narrowing of the luminal diameter. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were made to explore the association of the clinical and laboratory variables, including some items which had never or rarely been studied, with ARAS or CAD. Results: Of the 1,200 patients, 840 were male and 360 female. Their mean age was 62 ± 10 years. Low-grade (<50%) and significant coronary artery stenosis was found in 108 (9%) and 610 (51%) patients respectively. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors associated with the presence of coronary artery stenosis included male, older age, smoking, high serum concentration of low density lipoprotein, lipoprotein (a), and fast blood glucose ≧7.0 mmol/l. Significant ARAS was present in 116 (9.7%) patients, of which 20 (1.7%) were bilateral. The incidence of ARAS was similar in patients with suspected CAD or myocardial infarction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the association of the clinical variables with ARAS included: older age, hypercholesterolemia, a more than 10-year history of hypertension, proteinuria and S<sub>Cr</sub> ≧133 µmol/l. The severity of ARAS is significantly related to the severity of coronary artery disease. Conclusion: ARAS is a frequent finding in Chinese patients undergoing coronary angiography, especially in patients with significant coronary artery stenosis and risk factors for ARAS. Renal arteriography can be a helpful examination in these patients.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Severity of renal vascular disease predicts mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

          Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a relatively uncommon but potentially reversible cause of renal failure. In a previous report, we demonstrated that the presence of RAS is independently associated with mortality in a group of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Our current study expands on this cohort, investigating the effect of the severity of RAS on all-cause mortality. A total of 3987 patients underwent abdominal aortography immediately following coronary angiography. For the purpose of survival analysis, significant RAS was defined as > or =75% narrowing in the luminal diameter. Significant RAS was present in 4.8% of patients studied and was bilateral in 0.8%. Factors associated with the presence of RAS included female gender, older age, hypertension, congestive heart failure, elevated serum creatinine, and congestive heart failure. The four-year unadjusted survivals for patients with and without significant RAS were 57 and 89%, respectively (P or =95% stenosis was 70%, 68%, and 48%, respectively. In addition, bilateral disease was associated with four-year survival of 47% as compared with 59% for patients with unilateral disease (P < 0.001). The impact of RAS on survival remained robust regardless of the manner of treatment of coronary artery disease [that is, medical, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)]. In this patient population, the presence of RAS is a strong independent predictor of mortality. Increasing severity of RAS has an incremental effect on survival probability.
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            Mechanisms of renal structural alterations in combined hypercholesterolemia and renal artery stenosis.

            Atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) aggravates renal scarring more than other causes of renal artery stenosis (RAS), but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of this potential profibrotic effect remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that coexistence of atherosclerosis and RAS interferes with renal tissue remodeling. Single-kidney hemodynamics and function were quantified in vivo with electron-beam computed tomography in 3 groups of pigs (n=7 each): normal pigs, pigs 12 weeks after induction of unilateral RAS (RAS group), and pigs with similar-degree RAS fed a 12-week 2% hypercholesterolemic diet (HC+RAS, simulating early ARVD). Kidneys were studied ex vivo by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal volume, renal blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate were similarly decreased in RAS and HC+RAS ischemic kidneys, accompanied by similar increased expression of profibrotic factors like transforming growth factor-beta, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Nevertheless, HC+RAS kidneys showed increased intrarenal fibrosis compared with RAS-only kidneys. Furthermore, expression of nuclear factor-kappaB was increased, expression of extracellular (matrix metalloproteinase-2) and intracellular (ubiquitin) protein degradation systems was decreased, and apoptosis was blunted. Diet-induced HC superimposed on RAS accelerates the development of fibrosis in the stenotic kidney by amplifying profibrotic mechanisms and disrupting tissue remodeling. These alterations might contribute to renal disease progression in ARVD and might account for the increased propensity for end-stage renal disease.
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              Progression of renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.

              Renal artery stenosis is potentially correctable by either revascularization surgery or percutaneous methods. However, appropriate use of these techniques has been hampered by a lack of data on the natural history of this disease. This study assesses the prevalence, risk factors for progression, and effect on renal function of angiographically demonstrated renal artery disease in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. The severity of renal artery stenosis was quantified in all patients who underwent abdominal aortography as part of a diagnostic cardiac catheterization study at Duke University Medical Center between January 1989 and February 1996. There were 14,152 patients in the study (mean age 61+/-12 years, 62% male). Normal renal arteries were identified in 12,543 (88.7%) patients, insignificant disease ( or =75% stenosis in 1 or more vessels (mean creatinine level 141+114 micromol/L compared with those with insignificant disease (mean creatinine level 97+/-44 micromol/L (P= .01). Renal artery disease is frequently progressive in patients who undergo cardiac catheterization for investigation of coronary artery disease. Significant stenotic disease may develop over a short period despite evidence of normal renal arteries at prior catheterization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2006
                November 2006
                25 September 2006
                : 104
                : 4
                : c185-c192
                Affiliations
                Departments of aCardiology and bNephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
                Article
                95854 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;104:c185–c192
                10.1159/000095854
                17003570
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 5, References: 18, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/95854
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