Aims: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is a common and potentially reversible cause of end-stage renal failure. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of ARAS in Chinese patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected coronary heart disease (CAD), or for acute or chronic myocardial infarction. Methods: Selective renal arteriography was performed immediately after coronary angiography in 1,200 consecutive patients. Medical history and laboratory data were obtained before the procedure. Significant renal artery stenosis was defined as ≧50% narrowing of the luminal diameter. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were made to explore the association of the clinical and laboratory variables, including some items which had never or rarely been studied, with ARAS or CAD. Results: Of the 1,200 patients, 840 were male and 360 female. Their mean age was 62 ± 10 years. Low-grade (<50%) and significant coronary artery stenosis was found in 108 (9%) and 610 (51%) patients respectively. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors associated with the presence of coronary artery stenosis included male, older age, smoking, high serum concentration of low density lipoprotein, lipoprotein (a), and fast blood glucose ≧7.0 mmol/l. Significant ARAS was present in 116 (9.7%) patients, of which 20 (1.7%) were bilateral. The incidence of ARAS was similar in patients with suspected CAD or myocardial infarction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the association of the clinical variables with ARAS included: older age, hypercholesterolemia, a more than 10-year history of hypertension, proteinuria and S<sub>Cr</sub> ≧133 µmol/l. The severity of ARAS is significantly related to the severity of coronary artery disease. Conclusion: ARAS is a frequent finding in Chinese patients undergoing coronary angiography, especially in patients with significant coronary artery stenosis and risk factors for ARAS. Renal arteriography can be a helpful examination in these patients.