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      Are scale leaves essencial in temperate-cold climates? An evaluation in tree species from temperate rainforests of South America

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT The development of scaly buds (= cataphylls) has been traditionally associated with seasonally cold climates, although only few species from the southern hemisphere were investigated in this regard. The present work focuses on apical and axillary buds of seven tree species native to the South-American Temperate Rainforests (STR). Due to differences in the lineages from which these species derived, high levels of inter-specific variation in bud structure were expected. Apical and axillary buds were dissected under stereomicroscope, and the sizes of their parent shoots were evaluated. Cataphylls and leaf primordia were counted, and the presence of colleters and/or trichomes registered. Both intra- and inter-specific variations in bud structure were found. The apical buds were scaly in two out of seven species, and naked in the other species. Axillary buds were scaly in all but one species. In general terms, larger shoots developed buds with more organs. The presence of colleters (in four species) was not restricted to those buds lacking an outer cover of cataphylls. Further studies should focus on the relevance at a broader scale of colleters and trichomes as protective structures in tree buds.

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          Plant architecture: a dynamic, multilevel and comprehensive approach to plant form, structure and ontogeny.

          The architecture of a plant depends on the nature and relative arrangement of each of its parts; it is, at any given time, the expression of an equilibrium between endogenous growth processes and exogenous constraints exerted by the environment. The aim of architectural analysis is, by means of observation and sometimes experimentation, to identify and understand these endogenous processes and to separate them from the plasticity of their expression resulting from external influences. Using the identification of several morphological criteria and considering the plant as a whole, from germination to death, architectural analysis is essentially a detailed, multilevel, comprehensive and dynamic approach to plant development. Despite their recent origin, architectural concepts and analysis methods provide a powerful tool for studying plant form and ontogeny. Completed by precise morphological observations and appropriated quantitative methods of analysis, recent researches in this field have greatly increased our understanding of plant structure and development and have led to the establishment of a real conceptual and methodological framework for plant form and structure analysis and representation. This paper is a summarized update of current knowledge on plant architecture and morphology; its implication and possible role in various aspects of modern plant biology is also discussed.
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            The Role of Trichomes in Plant Defense

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              An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                abb
                Acta Botanica Brasilica
                Acta Bot. Bras.
                Sociedade Botânica do Brasil (Alta Floresta, MT, Brazil )
                0102-3306
                1677-941X
                2023
                : 37
                : e20220104
                Affiliations
                [3] San Carlos de Bariloche Río Negro orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Río Negro orgdiv1Instituto de Investigaciones en Recursos Naturales, Agroecología y Desarrollo Rural Argentina
                [2] Buenos Aires Buenos Aires orgnameConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas Argentina
                [1] Corrientes orgnameInstituto de Botánica del Nordeste Argentina
                Article
                S0102-33062023000100107 S0102-3306(23)03700000107
                10.1590/1677-941x-abb-2022-0104
                17c3092b-f61f-4bf0-87cb-4541a43937ef

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 22 April 2022
                : 28 January 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 86, Pages: 0
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Categories
                Original Article

                scaly buds,preformation,Tree buds,South-American Temperate Rainforest,naked buds

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