Studies of long-term outcomes of discrete subaortic stenosis (DSS) are rare. Therefore, we reviewed the long-term outcomes of subaortic membrane resection in children with isolated DSS over 16 years from a single institution.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients ( n = 27) who underwent resection of DSS between 2000 and 2017. Patients with major concomitant intracardiac anomalies were excluded. Indications for surgery were mean left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), Doppler gradient >30 mmHg, and/or progressive aortic insufficiency.
The mean age at diagnosis was 3.77 ± 3.49 years (range, 0.25–13 years) and the mean age at surgery was 6.36 ± 3.69 years (range, 1–13 years). All patients underwent resection of subaortic membrane. The mean LVOT Doppler gradient decreased from 40.52 ± 11.41 mmHg preoperatively to 8.48 ± 5.06 mmHg postoperatively ( P < 0.001). The peak instantaneous LVOT Doppler gradient decreased from 75.41 ± 15.22 mmHg preoperatively to 18.11 ± 11.44 mmHg postoperatively ( P < 0.001). At the latest follow-up, the peak gradient was 17.63 ± 8.93 mmHg. The mean follow-up was 7.47 ± 3.53 years (median 6.33 years; range 2.67–16 years). There was no operative mortality or late mortality. Recurrence of subaortic membrane occurred in 7 (25.92%, 7/27) patients who underwent primary DSS operation. Four (14.81%, 4/27) patients required reoperation for DSS recurrence at a median time of 4.8 years (3.1–9.1 years) after the initial repair. Risk factors for reoperation were age <6 years at initial repair. Eighteen (66.66%, 18/27) patients had AI preoperatively and progression of AI occurred in 70.37% (19/27). This included 4 (22.22%, 4/18) patients who had worsening of their preoperative AI. Short valve-to-membrane distance was found to be prognostically unfavorable. One (3.7%, 1/27) patient had an iatrogenic ventricular septal defect, and 2 (7.4%, 2/27) patients had complete AV block following membrane resection.
Resection of subaortic membrane in children is associated with low mortality. Higher LVOT gradient, younger age at initial repair, and shorter valve-to-membrane distance were found to be associated with adverse outcome. Recurrence and reoperation rates are high, and progression of aortic insufficiency following subaortic membrane resection is common. Therefore, these patients warrant close follow-up into adult life.