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      HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Reduce Nicotine-Induced Expression of Cellular Adhesion Molecules in Cultured Human Coronary Endothelial Cells

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          Abstract

          Background: Smoking predisposes to the development of atherosclerosis and of its complications. The mechanisms responsible for these effects are not completely understood. We have investigated whether nicotine might promote a proatherosclerotic state in human coronary endothelial cells (HCAECs), studying the role of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors in preventing these phenomena. Methods and Results: Real-time PCR showed that nicotine induced a dose-dependent increase in mRNA levels for vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Fluorescent-activated cell sorting analysis showed that nicotine induced expression of functionally active VCAM-1/ICAM-1, since they increased leukocyte adherence to HCAECs. Oxygen free radicals, Rho A and nuclear factor ĸB (NF-ĸB) play a pivotal role in modulating these effects. Indeed, nicotine caused oxygen free radical production as well as activation of Rho A and NF-ĸB pathways, evaluated by malondialdehyde levels, pulldown assay and by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. Superoxide dimutase, Rho A (Y-27639) and NF-ĸB inhibitors (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate ammonium, Bay 11-7082) suppressed nicotine effects on CAM expression. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors prevented these nicotine-mediated effects by inhibiting free radical generation and by modulating activation of Rho A and NF-ĸB pathways. Conclusions: Nicotine promotes CAM expression on HCAECs, shifting them toward a proatherosclerotic state. These effects might explain, at least in part, the deleterious cardiovascular consequences of cigarette smoking. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors play an important role in preventing these phenomena.

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          Most cited references 24

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          A rapid micropreparation technique for extraction of DNA-binding proteins from limiting numbers of mammalian cells.

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            Nicotine stimulates angiogenesis and promotes tumor growth and atherosclerosis.

            We provide anatomic and functional evidence that nicotine induces angiogenesis. We also show that nicotine accelerates the growth of tumor and atheroma in association with increased neovascularization. Nicotine increased endothelial-cell growth and tube formation in vitro, and accelerated fibrovascular growth in vivo. In a mouse model of hind-limb ischemia, nicotine increased capillary and collateral growth, and enhanced tissue perfusion. In mouse models of lung cancer and atherosclerosis, we found that nicotine enhanced lesion growth in association with an increase in lesion vascularity. These effects of nicotine were mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at nicotine concentrations that are pathophysiologically relevant. The endothelial production of nitric oxide, prostacyclin and vascular endothelial growth factor might have a role in these effects.
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              The expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM, and E-selectin in human atherosclerosis.

              The expression of PECAM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin was studied in 64 samples of human coronary arteries taken from 15 explanted hearts obtained within 5 min of transplantation. Normal artery (n = 12), predominantly fibrous plaques (n = 23), and plaques containing extracellular lipid (n = 26) and three segments showing recanalization channels were studied. All endothelial cells strongly and equally expressed PECAM; positive staining was used to check that artefactual denudation of the endothelial surface had not occurred. PECAM was also present in some lipid-filled macrophages. Normal arteries showed no VCAM-1 staining but focal segments of the endothelium were positive for ICAM-1 and E-selectin. ICAM-1 was strongly and constantly expressed by the endothelium over all types of plaques and in macrophages. E-selectin expression was confined to endothelial cells and occurred on the surface in 35 per cent of fibrous and 22 per cent of lipid-containing plaques. VCAM-1 staining of surface endothelium occurred in 39 per cent of fibrous and 20 per cent of lipid-containing plaques. A population of spindle-shaped cells of macrophage type (positive for EMB11 antigen) expressed VCAM-1 in lipid-containing plaques. Adventitial vessels adjacent to plaques showed endothelial expression of ICAM-1 and E-selectin. VCAM-1 staining of adventitial vessel endothelium was associated with local lymphoid aggregation. In conclusion, the expression of cell adhesion molecules is an important element in the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis and contributes to both monocyte and lymphocyte activation and recruitment from adventitial vessels and the arterial lumen.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2007
                October 2007
                26 July 2007
                : 44
                : 6
                : 460-470
                Affiliations
                Divisions of aCardiology and bClinical Immunology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
                Article
                106464 J Vasc Res 2007;44:460–470
                10.1159/000106464
                17657162
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 40, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Paper

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