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      Prevalence of overweight and obesity in United Arab Emirates Expatriates: the UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Study

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To describe current prevalence of obesity and related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in expatriates living in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

          Methods

          We used data from the cross-sectional UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Study (UAEDIAB), which surveyed adult expatriates living in the UAE for at least 4 years. We report crude prevalence of overweight and obesity, indicated by gender and ethnicity-specific body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) cut-offs, by lifestyle and biomedical characteristics, as well as age and sex-adjusted odds ratios.

          Results

          Out of a total of 3064 recruited expatriates (response rate 68%), 2724 had completed all stages of the UAEDIAB study. Expatriates were; 81% men, mean age 38 years (range 18–80), 71% South East Asians, and 36% university graduates. In this sample, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, by BMI, were 43.0 and 32.3%, respectively. 52.4 and 56.5% of participants were at a substantially increased risk according to WC and WHR, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were 15.5, 31.8, and 51.7%, respectively, with the prevalence of each being higher in those with obesity.

          Conclusion

          Prevalence of obesity and associated NCDs are extremely high in UAE expatriates. Without comprehensive prevention and management, levels of disease will continue to increase and productivity will fall.

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          Most cited references12

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          Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

          In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic.

            The current epidemic of obesity is caused largely by an environment that promotes excessive food intake and discourages physical activity. Although humans have evolved excellent physiological mechanisms to defend against body weight loss, they have only weak physiological mechanisms to defend against body weight gain when food is abundant. Control of portion size, consumption of a diet low in fat and energy density, and regular physical activity are behaviors that protect against obesity, but it is becoming difficult to adopt and maintain these behaviors in the current environment. Because obesity is difficult to treat, public health efforts need to be directed toward prevention.
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              Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature.

              A review of 144 published studies of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity reveals a strong inverse relationship among women in developed societies. The relationship is inconsistent for men and children in developed societies. In developing societies, however, a strong direct relationship exists between SES and obesity among men, women, and children. A review of social attitudes toward obesity and thinness reveals values congruent with the distribution of obesity by SES in different societies. Several variables may mediate the influence of attitudes toward obesity and thinness among women in developed societies that result in the inverse relationship between SES and obesity. They include dietary restraint, physical activity, social mobility, and inheritance.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                nsulaiman@sharjah.ac.ae
                salah_badawi@hotmail.com
                amalmh@sharjah.ac.ae
                salahdeen.abusnana@ghp.se
                aaamadani@gmail.com
                maysoonxyz@hotmail.com
                ffAlawadi@dha.gov.ae
                ansulaiman@yahoo.com
                paul.zimmet@monash.edu
                oliver.huse@deakin.edu.au
                Jonathan.Shaw@bakeridi.edu.au
                anna.peeters@deakin.edu.au
                Journal
                Diabetol Metab Syndr
                Diabetol Metab Syndr
                Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
                BioMed Central (London )
                1758-5996
                2 November 2017
                2 November 2017
                2017
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4686 5317, GRID grid.412789.1, Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, , University of Sharjah, ; P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah, UAE
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 0894, GRID grid.414167.1, Dubai Health Authority, ; Dubai, UAE
                [3 ]Rashid Centre for Diabetes and Research, Ajman, UAE
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1796 7314, GRID grid.414162.4, Dubai Hospital, ; Dubai, UAE
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0488 7120, GRID grid.4912.e, Royal College of Surgeons, ; Dublin, Ireland
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4902 0432, GRID grid.1005.4, College of Medicine, , University of New South Wales (UNSW), ; Sydney, Australia
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9760 5620, GRID grid.1051.5, Baker/IDI, ; Melbourne, VIC Australia
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0526 7079, GRID grid.1021.2, School of Health and Social Development, , Deakin University, ; Geelong, VIC Australia
                Article
                287
                10.1186/s13098-017-0287-0
                5667520
                17fbe12a-923a-4b4f-8150-3ca6ef4d6856
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Sanofi Company
                Funded by: Baker IDI
                Funded by: Ministry Of Health- UAE
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                united arab emirates,expatriates,obesity,overweight,prevalence,adults
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                united arab emirates, expatriates, obesity, overweight, prevalence, adults

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