Objective To analyze the refractive status of all students in four schools in Xicheng District of Beijing, and to provide data for myopia prevention and control in the future.
Methods A total of 2 496 students from 2 complete middle schools and 2 primary schools were examined for visual acuity and non-mydriatic automatic optometry. The data about their eyesight and refractive status was analyzed by using SPSS 11.5.
Results The total detection rate of poor eyesight was 69.99% in four schools, and total rate of myopia was 57.97%. 1 610 eyes were of low myopia (32.25%), 1 054 eyes were of moderate myopia (21.11%) and 231 eyes were of high myopia (4.61%). The order of refractive status composition in different periods was as follows: in primary school, it was emmetropia (35.64%) > low myopia (28.76%) > hyperopia (15.04%) > moderate myopia (10.45%) ; and in junior middle school, low myopia (38.62%) > moderate myopia (29.07%) > emmetropia (12.43%) ; in senior middle school, moderate myopia (37.31%) > low myopia (33.95%) > high myopia (11.34%), the emmetropia in senior middle school was detected of only 5.29%. Low myopia increased rapidly from grade 1 (10.54%) to grade 3 (30.08%) in primary schools, moderate myopia increased rapidly from grade 4 to grade 6 (14.22%, 17.94%, 25.00%) in primary schools, and high myopia increased rapidly from grade 2 (7.11%) in junior middle school to grade 2 (13.47%) in senior middle school. The average diopter was (−1.69±2.42) D. The average diopter of primary school was (−0.76±1.87) D, junior middle school was (−2.41±2.40) D, senior middle school was (−3.09土 2.62) D, the difference was significant ( F =541.40, P<0.01). The average diopter of each grade decreased year by year with significant difference ( F = 139.97, P<0.01). The annual difference was between − 0.3 D and − 0.7 D.
Conclusion The prevention and control of myopia should pay special attention to the primary school stage. The earlier the intervention, the more likely it is to prevent myopia from developing into high myopia.
【摘要】 目的 分析北京市西城区4所学校学生屈光状态，为学生近视防控工作提供数据依据。 方法 对北京市西 城区辖区2所完全中学、2所小学共2 496名学生进行视力和非散瞳计算机验光检査。应用SPSS 11.5对视力和屈光状态 进行统计分析。 结果 学生视力不良总检出率为69.99%。非散瞳验光结果显示，学生近视检出率为57.97%，其中低度近 视1 610眼 (32.25%)，中度近视1 054眼 (21.11%)，髙度近视231眼（4.61%)。不同学段各屈光状态构成比排序情况：小 学依次为正视（35.64%)、低度近视（28.76%)、远视（15.04%)、中度近视（10.45%); 初中为低度近视（38.62%)、中度近视 (29.07%)、正视 (12.43%); 髙中为中度近视（37.31%)、低度近视（33.95%)、髙度近视（11.34%)，髙中仅有5.29%为正视。 低度近视在小学一（10.54%)至三年级（30.08%)快速增多，中度近视在小学四到六年级（分别为14.22%，17.94%，25.00%) 快速增多，髙度近视的快速增加出现在初二（7.11%)至髙二（13.47%)之间。总体屈光度平均值为（−1.69±2.42)D，其中小 学生为（−0.76±1.87)D，初中生为（−2.41±2.40)D，髙中生为（−3.09±2.62)D，差异有统计学意义（ F = 541.40， P<0.01)。各 年级的屈光度平均值随年级逐年下降，差异具有统计学意义（ F =139.97， P<0.01)，年差值在−0.3~−0.7 D之间。 结论 小 学阶段以中低度近视为主。近视防控工作要特别关注小学学段，越早干预，越有可能防止近视发展成髙度近视。