Immediate post-operative care of tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) and oesophageal atresia (EA) requires mechanical ventilation. Early extubation is preferred, but subsequent respiratory distress may warrant re-intubation. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a well-established modality to prevent extubation failures in preterm infants. However, it is not favoured in TEF/EA, because of the theoretical risk of oesophageal anastomotic leak (AL). The aim of this study was to find out if post-extubation CPAP is associated with increased risk of AL.