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      A restrictive dose of crystalloids in patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and cost-effective: prospective, two-arm parallel, randomized controlled trial

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          There are no evidence-based guidelines for volume replacement during surgical procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, the administration of a restrictive volume of crystalloids could be more cost-effective and safe. This trial aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of a restrictive regimen of crystalloids in patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy by analyzing its cost-effectiveness and 1-year morbidity rate.

          Patients and methods

          In this randomized, prospective study, patients were assigned to one of three groups based on the volume of fluid administered: the restrictive group received 1 mL/kg/hr, the low liberal group received 5 mL/kg/hr, and the high liberal group received 15 mL/kg/hr of Ringer’s solution intraoperatively. There were 40 patients in each group. Each patient’s hemodynamic parameters and laboratory values (arterial blood gas and lactate levels) were measured together with their consumption of crystalloids, volatile anesthetics, and analgesics.


          Analysis of the hemodynamic and laboratory parameters revealed no signs of global hypoperfusion in any of the groups analyzed. There was no significant difference in the duration of surgery and anesthesia, but the consumption of crystalloids, volatile anesthetics, and opioids was significantly lower in the restrictive group, compared with the low and high liberal groups. Although there was no significant difference in the 1-year morbidity among the groups, heart failure was observed in one patient in the high liberal group in the early postoperative period.


          Restrictive fluid therapy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is justified, safe, and more cost-effective than other options.

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          Most cited references 18

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          A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study.

          To develop and validate a new Simplified Acute Physiology Score, the SAPS II, from a large sample of surgical and medical patients, and to provide a method to convert the score to a probability of hospital mortality. The SAPS II and the probability of hospital mortality were developed and validated using data from consecutive admissions to 137 adult medical and/or surgical intensive care units in 12 countries. The 13,152 patients were randomly divided into developmental (65%) and validation (35%) samples. Patients younger than 18 years, burn patients, coronary care patients, and cardiac surgery patients were excluded. Vital status at hospital discharge. The SAPS II includes only 17 variables: 12 physiology variables, age, type of admission (scheduled surgical, unscheduled surgical, or medical), and three underlying disease variables (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, metastatic cancer, and hematologic malignancy). Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that the model performed well in the developmental sample and validated well in an independent sample of patients (P = .883 and P = .104 in the developmental and validation samples, respectively). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.88 in the developmental sample and 0.86 in the validation sample. The SAPS II, based on a large international sample of patients, provides an estimate of the risk of death without having to specify a primary diagnosis. This is a starting point for future evaluation of the efficiency of intensive care units.
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            Effects of intravenous fluid restriction on postoperative complications: comparison of two perioperative fluid regimens: a randomized assessor-blinded multicenter trial.

            To investigate the effect of a restricted intravenous fluid regimen versus a standard regimen on complications after colorectal resection. Current fluid administration in major surgery causes a weight increase of 3-6 kg. Complications after colorectal surgery are reported in up to 68% of patients. Associations between postoperative weight gain and poor survival as well as fluid overload and complications have been shown. We did a randomized observer-blinded multicenter trial. After informed consent was obtained, 172 patients were allocated to either a restricted or a standard intraoperative and postoperative intravenous fluid regimen. The restricted regimen aimed at maintaining preoperative body weight; the standard regimen resembled everyday practice. The primary outcome measures were complications; the secondary measures were death and adverse effects. The restricted intravenous fluid regimen significantly reduced postoperative complications both by intention-to-treat (33% versus 51%, P = 0.013) and per-protocol (30% versus 56%, P = 0.003) analyses. The numbers of both cardiopulmonary (7% versus 24%, P = 0.007) and tissue-healing complications (16% versus 31%, P = 0.04) were significantly reduced. No patients died in the restricted group compared with 4 deaths in the standard group (0% versus 4.7%, P = 0.12). No harmful adverse effects were observed. The restricted perioperative intravenous fluid regimen aiming at unchanged body weight reduces complications after elective colorectal resection.
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              Effect of salt and water balance on recovery of gastrointestinal function after elective colonic resection: a randomised controlled trial.

              Low concentrations of albumin in serum and long gastric emptying times have been returned to normal in dogs by salt and water restriction, or a high protein intake. We aimed to determine the effect of salt and water balance on recovery of gastrointestinal function after elective colonic resection in human beings. We randomly allocated ten patients to receive postoperative intravenous fluids in accordance present hospital practice (> or = 3 L water and 154 mmol sodium per day) and ten to receive a restricted intake (< or = 2 L water and 77 mmol sodium per day). All patients had no disease other than colonic cancer. The primary endpoint was solid and liquid-phase gastric emptying time, measured by dual isotope radionuclide scintigraphy on the fourth postoperative day. Secondary endpoints included time to first bowel movement and length of postoperative hospital stay. Analysis was by intention to treat. Median solid and liquid phase gastric emptying times (T(50)) on the fourth postoperative day were significantly longer in the standard group than in the restricted group (175 vs 72.5 min, difference 56 [95% CI 12-132], p=0.028; and 110 vs 73.5 min, 52 [9-95], p=0.017, respectively). Median passage of flatus was 1 day later (4 vs 3 days, 2 [1-2], p=0.001); median passage of stool 2.5 days later (6.5 vs 4 days, 3 [2-4], p=0.001); and median postoperative hospital stay 3 days longer (9 vs 6 days, 3 [1-8], p=0.001) in the standard group than in the restricted group. One patient in the restricted group developed hypokalaemia, whereas seven patients in the standard group had side-effects or complications (p=0.01). Positive salt and water balance sufficient to cause a 3 kg weight gain after surgery delays return of gastrointestinal function and prolongs hospital stay in patients undergoing elective colonic resection.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                19 April 2018
                : 14
                : 741-751
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Reanimatology, and Intensive Medicine, Karlovac General Hospital, Karlovac, Croatia
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Reanimatology, and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia
                [3 ]Department of Abdominal Surgery, Karlovac General Hospital, Karlovac, Croatia
                [4 ]Department of Nursing Science, Karlovac University of Applied Sciences, Karlovac, Croatia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Matija Belavić, Department of Anesthesiology, Reanimatology, and Intensive Medicine, Karlovac General Hospital, Andrije Štampara 3, 47 000 Karlovac, Croatia, Tel/fax +385 47 60 8311, Email mbelavic1@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2018 Belavić et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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