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ADT-G as a promising biomarker for peripheral hyperandrogenism in adult female acne

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      ABSTRACT

      Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the pilosebaceous unit. Recent studies have shown an increasing number of cases of acne in adult women. These cases are predominantly normoandrogenic and present some clinical differences compared to adolescent acne. Local glandular metabolism turns some weak hormonal precursors into more active substances that increase the production of sebum, leaving these areas more prone to an increasing the colonization by Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of an androgenic metabolite as an adult female acne biomarker. The study population consisted of 38 adult women with acne without any features of hyperandrogenism and a control group. They were recruited from the clinic of Dermatology Hospital Division of São Paulo, Federal University of São Paulo from January 2012 to September 2014. After the first hormonal dosages, patients with acne were randomized into two different groups: one receiving a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 0,02 mg of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone in a regimen of 24 days of medication, and the other group was treated with a topical gel containing 15% azelaic acid (AA), twice daily, both for six months. With the end of treatment new dosages were performed. Regarding the hormones, total and free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sultate were quantified. In addition, the detection and quantification of androsterone glucuronate (ADT-G), an androgenic metabolite, has been developed. Only ADT-G was sensitive in detecting differences between the control and acne groups, and presented reduction of their values with systemic treatment. Therefore, only ADT-G was able to analyze the peripheral hyperandrogenism in cases of adult female acne.

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      Most cited references 27

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      The prevalence of acne in adults 20 years and older.

      Acne, one of the most common skin diseases, is often mistakenly thought to affect exclusively the teenaged group. However, a significant number of patients either continue to experience acne or develop new-onset acne after the teenaged years. A survey was designed to assess the prevalence of acne in the teenaged years, and aged 20 to 29 years, 30 to 39 years, 40 to 49 years, and 50 years and older. Adults aged 20 years and older were asked to complete surveys distributed at various sites on our university campus and medical complex. Of 1013 participants aged 20 years and older, 73.3% (n = 744) reported ever having acne. After the teenaged years, women were more likely to report having acne than men, with the difference being statistically significant in all age groups. The prevalence of acne reported in women versus men was as follows: 20 to 29 years, 50.9% (n = 276) versus 42.5% (n = 201) (P = .0073); 30 to 39 years, 35.2% (n = 152) versus 20.1% (n = 73) (P < .0001); 40 to 49 years, 26.3% (n = 93) versus 12.0% (n = 36) (P < .0001); and 50 years and older, 15.3% (n = 41) versus 7.3% (n = 18) (P = .0046). Our results are based on the participant's own perception of the presence or absence of acne rather than a clinical evaluation. Acne continues to be a common skin problem past the teenaged years, with women being affected at higher rates than men in all age groups 20 years or older.
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        Testosterone measured by 10 immunoassays and by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in sera from 116 men, women, and children.

        Commercially available testosterone immunoassays give divergent results, especially at the low concentrations seen in women. We compared immunoassays and a nonimmunochemical method that could quantify low testosterone concentrations. We measured serum testosterone in 50 men, 55 women, and 11 children with use of eight nonisotopic immunoassays, two isotopic immunoassays, and isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID/GC-MS). Compared with ID/GC-MS, 7 of the 10 immunoassays tested overestimated testosterone concentrations in samples from women; mean immunoassay results were 46% above those obtained by ID/GC-MS. The immunoassays underestimated testosterone concentrations in samples from men, giving mean results 12% below those obtained by ID/GC-MS. In women, at concentrations of 0.6-7.2 nmol/L, 3 of the 10 immunoassays gave positive mean differences >2.0 nmol/L (range, -0.7 to 3.3 nmol/L) compared with ID/GC-MS; in men at concentrations of 8.2-58 nmol/L, 3 of the 10 immunoassays tested gave mean differences >4.0 nmol/L (range, -4.8 to 2.6 nmol/L). None of the immunoassays tested was sufficiently reliable for the investigation of sera from children and women, in whom very low (0.17 nmol/L) and low (<1.7 nmol/L) testosterone concentrations are expected.
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          Recent findings in the epidemiologic evidence, classification, and subtypes of acne vulgaris.

           Gary M. White (1998)
          Acne affects between 40 to 50 million individuals in the United States. Recent findings regarding the multifactorial pathogenesis of acne have facilitated a reexamination of the classification of acne and acne-related disorders. Disorders without a microcomedo as the initial pathologic condition are no longer classified as "acne." Research has also identified that the clinical characteristics of acne vary with age, pubertal status, gender, and race. These findings may have implications for the clinical management of acne and acne-related disorders.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [a ]Escola Paulista de Medicina–Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp) , Brazil
            [b ]Grupo Fleury – Pesquisa e desenvolvimento
            Author notes
            CONTACT Rocha Marco marcoderm@ 123456hotmail.com Rua Eugenio Bettarello 55 ap 134B, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
            [+]

            dermatologist MD and PhD at UNIFESP.

            [#]

            dermatologist, professor MD and PhD at UNIFESP.

            [∧]

            researcher and PhD.

            Journal
            Dermatoendocrinol
            Dermatoendocrinol
            KDER
            kder20
            Dermato-endocrinology
            Taylor & Francis
            1938-1972
            1938-1980
            2017
            13 October 2017
            13 October 2017
            : 9
            : 1
            5823034
            1361571
            10.1080/19381980.2017.1361571
            © 2018 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.

            Counts
            Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 6
            Product
            Funding
            Funded by: FLEURY
            Funded by: FUNADERSP
            FLEURY; FUNADERSP
            Categories
            Research Paper

            Dermatology

            androsterone glucuronide, adult, female, biomarker, adt-g, acne

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