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      Interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 blood levels’ poor association with the severity and clinical profile of ex-smokers with COPD

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          Abstract

          Background

          The role of interleukins in the severity and clinical profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not known, but evidence supports the contribution of systemic inflammation to disease pathophysiology. This study evaluated the relationship of serum biomarkers to the severity and clinical parameters of COPD.

          Methods and findings

          Serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured in 50 patients with stable COPD and in 16 controls. The levels of these biomarkers were compared with parameters of severity, such as the grading of flow obstruction using the recommendations of the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, the BMI (body mass index), obstruction, dyspnea, exercise capacity (health index) index, the number of exacerbations within the last year, and peripheral oxygen saturation after the six-minute walk test, and with clinical parameters, such as bronchitis and non-bronchitis phenotypes, the number of associated comorbidities, and the smoking burden. COPD patients exhibited higher levels of IL-6 and IL-8 compared to the control group. Higher levels of IL-6 occurred in COPD groups with body mass index <21 kg/m 2, with more than two exacerbations in the past year, with a higher smoking burden, and with bronchitis. The increase in serum IL-8 was found only in the group with the highest number of exacerbations within the previous year.

          Conclusion

          Increased IL-6 was mainly associated with smoking burden, in patients who had smoked for more than 30 pack-years and exhibited a bronchitis phenotype. No direct association was observed for both IL-6 and IL-8 blood levels with the severity of COPD in ex-smokers.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Immunologic aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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            New reference values for forced spirometry in white adults in Brazil.

            To describe spirometric reference equations for healthy Brazilian adults who have never smoked and to compare the predicted values with those derived in 1992. Reference equations for spirometry were derived in 270 men and 373 women living in eight cities in Brazil. Ages ranged from 20 to 85 years in women and from 26 to 86 years in men. Spirometry examinations followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Thoracic Society. Lower limits were derived by the analysis of the fifth percentiles of the residuals. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC and FEV1/forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6) were best fitted by linear regression. Flows were best fitted using log equations. For both genders, greater height resulted in lower values for FEV1/FVC, FEV1/FEV6 and flow/FVC ratios. The reference values for FEV1 and FVC in the present study were higher than those derived for Brazilian adults in 1992. New predicted values for forced spirometry were obtained in a sample of white Brazilians. The values are greater than those obtained in 1992, probably due to technical factors.
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              CD8+ T-lymphocytes in peripheral airways of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              To investigate whether the inflammatory process in peripheral airways is different in smokers who develop symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation and in asymptomatic smokers who do not develop chronic airflow limitation, we examined surgical specimens obtained from 16 smokers undergoing lung resection for localized pulmonary lesions. Nine had symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation and seven were asymptomatic with normal lung function. In peripheral airways, immunohistochemical methods were performed to identify neutrophils, macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes infiltrating the airway wall, and morphometric methods were used to measure the internal perimeter, the airway wall area, and the smooth muscle area. The number of CD8+ T-lymphocytes and the smooth muscle area were increased in smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation as compared with asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function, while the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and CD4+ T-lymphocytes were similar in the two groups of subjects examined. We concluded that smokers who develop symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation have an increased number of CD8+ T-lymphocytes and an increased smooth muscle area in the peripheral airways as compared with asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function, supporting the important role of CD8+ T-lymphocytes and airway remodeling in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2014
                29 July 2014
                : 9
                : 735-743
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Health Sciences of Federal University of Goiás, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
                [2 ]Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
                [3 ]Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, Universidade Federal de Goiás Avenida B número 483, Setor Oeste, Goiânia, Goiás CEP 74110-030, Brazil, Email mfrabahi@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                copd-9-735
                10.2147/COPD.S64135
                4122580
                © 2014 Moraes et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, c-reactive protein

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