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      Network Pharmacology Identifies the Mechanisms of Action of Shaoyao Gancao Decoction in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Osteoarthritis (OA) affects the health and wellbeing of the elderly. Shaoyao Gancao decoction (SGD) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of OA and has two active components, shaoyao (SY) and gancao (GC). This study aimed to undertake a network pharmacology analysis of the mechanism of the effects of SGD in OA.

          Material/Methods

          The active compounds and candidates of SGD were obtained from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Databases@Taiwan, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database, the STITCH database, the ChEMBL database, and PubChem. The network pharmacology approach involved network construction, target prediction, and module analysis. Significant signaling pathways of the cluster networks for SGD and OA were identified using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database.

          Results

          Twenty-three bioactive compounds were identified, corresponding to 226 targets for SGD. Also, 187 genes were closely associated with OA, of which 161 overlapped with the targets of SGD and were considered to be therapeutically relevant. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that SGD exerted its pharmacological effects in OA by modulating multiple pathways, including cell cycle, cell apoptosis, drug metabolism, inflammation, and immune modulation.

          Conclusions

          A novel approach was developed to systematically identify the mechanisms of the TCM, SGD in OA using network pharmacology analysis.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium.

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            TCM Database@Taiwan: The World's Largest Traditional Chinese Medicine Database for Drug Screening In Silico

            Rapid advancing computational technologies have greatly speeded up the development of computer-aided drug design (CADD). Recently, pharmaceutical companies have increasingly shifted their attentions toward traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for novel lead compounds. Despite the growing number of studies on TCM, there is no free 3D small molecular structure database of TCM available for virtual screening or molecular simulation. To address this shortcoming, we have constructed TCM Database@Taiwan (http://tcm.cmu.edu.tw/) based on information collected from Chinese medical texts and scientific publications. TCM Database@Taiwan is currently the world's largest non-commercial TCM database. This web-based database contains more than 20,000 pure compounds isolated from 453 TCM ingredients. Both cdx (2D) and Tripos mol2 (3D) formats of each pure compound in the database are available for download and virtual screening. The TCM database includes both simple and advanced web-based query options that can specify search clauses, such as molecular properties, substructures, TCM ingredients, and TCM classification, based on intended drug actions. The TCM database can be easily accessed by all researchers conducting CADD. Over the last eight years, numerous volunteers have devoted their time to analyze TCM ingredients from Chinese medical texts as well as to construct structure files for each isolated compound. We believe that TCM Database@Taiwan will be a milestone on the path towards modernizing traditional Chinese medicine.
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              A review of the dietary flavonoid, kaempferol on human health and cancer chemoprevention.

              Kaempferol is a polyphenol antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Many studies have described the beneficial effects of dietary kaempferol in reducing the risk of chronic diseases, especially cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between kaempferol intake and cancer. Kaempferol may help by augmenting the body's antioxidant defence against free radicals, which promote the development of cancer. At the molecular level, kaempferol has been reported to modulate a number of key elements in cellular signal transduction pathways linked to apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Significantly, kaempferol inhibits cancer cell growth and angiogenesis and induces cancer cell apoptosis, but on the other hand, kaempferol appears to preserve normal cell viability, in some cases exerting a protective effect. The aim of this review is to synthesize information concerning the extraction of kaempferol, as well as to provide insights into the molecular basis of its potential chemo-preventative activities, with an emphasis on its ability to control intracellular signaling cascades that regulate the aforementioned processes. Chemoprevention using nanotechnology to improve the bioavailability of kaempferol is also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Med Sci Monit
                Med. Sci. Monit
                Medical Science Monitor
                Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
                International Scientific Literature, Inc.
                1234-1010
                1643-3750
                2019
                14 August 2019
                : 25
                : 6051-6073
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Second Department of Spinal Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical College, Chengde, Hebei, P.R. China
                [2 ]Hebei Key Laboratory of Study and Exploitation of Chinese Medicine, Chengde Medical College, Chengde, Hebei, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Naiqiang Zhu, e-mail: zhunq2010@ 123456163.com
                [A]

                Study Design

                [B]

                Data Collection

                [C]

                Statistical Analysis

                [D]

                Data Interpretation

                [E]

                Manuscript Preparation

                [F]

                Literature Search

                [G]

                Funds Collection

                Article
                915821
                10.12659/MSM.915821
                6705180
                31409761
                © Med Sci Monit, 2019

                This work is licensed under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

                Categories
                Clinical Research

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