Modeling plant growth, in particular with functional-structural plant models, can provide tools to study impacts of changing environments in silico. Simulation studies can be used as pilot studies for reducing the on-field experimental effort when predictive capabilities are given. Robust model calibration leads to less fragile predictions, while introducing uncertainties in predictions allows accounting for natural variability, resulting in stochastic plant growth models. In this study, stochastic model components that can be implemented into the functional-structural plant model Virtual Riesling are developed relying on Bayesian model calibration with the goal to enhance the model towards a fully stochastic model. In this first step, model development targeting phenology, in particular budburst variability, phytomer development rate and internode growth are presented in detail. Multi-objective optimization is applied to estimate a single set of cardinal temperatures, which is used in phenology and growth modeling based on a development days approach. Measurements from two seasons of grapevines grown in a vineyard with free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) are used; thus, model building and selection are coupled with an investigation as to whether including effects of elevated CO2 conditions to be expected in 2050 would improve the models. The results show how natural variability complicates the detection of possible treatment effects, but demonstrate that Bayesian calibration in combination with mixed models can realistically recover natural shoot growth variability in predictions. We expect these and further stochastic model extensions to result in more realistic virtual plant simulations to study effects, which are used to conduct in silico studies of canopy microclimate and its effects on grape health and quality.