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      Evaluative Conditioning From the Perspective of the Associative-Propositional Evaluation Model


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          Evaluative conditioning (EC) is defined as the change in the evaluation of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its pairing with a positive or negative unconditioned stimulus (US). According to the associative-propositional evaluation (APE) model, EC effects can be the result of two functionally distinct learning mechanisms: associative and propositional learning. The current article reviews the core assumptions of the APE model regarding (1) the defining features of associative and propositional learning, (2) the mental representations resulting from the two learning mechanisms, (3) the processes involved in the behavioral expression of these representations, and (4) the automatic versus controlled nature of the processes underlying EC effects. In addition to reviewing the core assumptions of the APE model, the article reviews relevant evidence to illustrate the theory’s main hypotheses, its explanatory and predictive power, as well as empirical challenges for the theory.

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          Most cited references74

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          The case for motivated reasoning.

          Ziva Kunda (1990)
          It is proposed that motivation may affect reasoning through reliance on a biased set of cognitive processes--that is, strategies for accessing, constructing, and evaluating beliefs. The motivation to be accurate enhances use of those beliefs and strategies that are considered most appropriate, whereas the motivation to arrive at particular conclusions enhances use of those that are considered most likely to yield the desired conclusion. There is considerable evidence that people are more likely to arrive at conclusions that they want to arrive at, but their ability to do so is constrained by their ability to construct seemingly reasonable justifications for these conclusions. These ideas can account for a wide variety of research concerned with motivated reasoning.
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            Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: an integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change.

            A central theme in recent research on attitudes is the distinction between deliberate, "explicit" attitudes and automatic, "implicit" attitudes. The present article provides an integrative review of the available evidence on implicit and explicit attitude change that is guided by a distinction between associative and propositional processes. Whereas associative processes are characterized by mere activation independent of subjective truth or falsity, propositional reasoning is concerned with the validation of evaluations and beliefs. The proposed associative-propositional evaluation (APE) model makes specific assumptions about the mutual interplay of the 2 processes, implying several mechanisms that lead to symmetric or asymmetric changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. The model integrates a broad range of empirical evidence and implies several new predictions for implicit and explicit attitude change.
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              Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test.


                Author and article information

                Social Psychological Bulletin
                Social Psychological Bulletin
                11 September 2018
                : 13
                : 3
                : e28024
                [1 ] University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA University of Texas at Austin, USA Austin United States of America
                [2 ] Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA Northwestern University Evanston United States of America
                Author notes
                Corresponding author:

                Bertram Gawronski (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA). E-mail: gawronski@ 123456utexas.edu )

                Handling editor: Yoav Bar-Anan (Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel)

                Bertram Gawronski, Galen V. Bodenhausen

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC0 Public Domain Dedication.

                : 20 December 2017
                : 18 June 2018
                Review Article
                Affect and Cognition
                Attitudes and Attitude Change
                Cognitive Psychology
                Evaluative Conditioning
                Social Psychology

                propositional learning,evaluative conditioning,dual-process theory,automaticity,associative learning


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