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How to assist parents of children with autism spectrum disorders in rural area?

Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice

Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd

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      Traffic-related air pollution, particulate matter, and autism.

      Autism is a heterogeneous disorder with genetic and environmental factors likely contributing to its origins. Examination of hazardous pollutants has suggested the importance of air toxics in the etiology of autism, yet little research has examined its association with local levels of air pollution using residence-specific exposure assignments. To examine the relationship between traffic-related air pollution, air quality, and autism. This population-based case-control study includes data obtained from children with autism and control children with typical development who were enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment study in California. The mother's address from the birth certificate and addresses reported from a residential history questionnaire were used to estimate exposure for each trimester of pregnancy and first year of life. Traffic-related air pollution was assigned to each location using a line-source air-quality dispersion model. Regional air pollutant measures were based on the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System data. Logistic regression models compared estimated and measured pollutant levels for children with autism and for control children with typical development. Case-control study from California. A total of 279 children with autism and a total of 245 control children with typical development. Crude and multivariable adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for autism. Children with autism were more likely to live at residences that had the highest quartile of exposure to traffic-related air pollution, during gestation (AOR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.20-3.31]) and during the first year of life (AOR, 3.10 [95% CI, 1.76-5.57]), compared with control children. Regional exposure measures of nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) were also associated with autism during gestation (exposure to nitrogen dioxide: AOR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.37-3.09]; exposure to PM2.5: AOR, 2.08 [95% CI, 1.93-2.25]; exposure to PM10: AOR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.49-3.16) and during the first year of life (exposure to nitrogen dioxide: AOR, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.37-3.09]; exposure to PM2.5: AOR, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.45-3.10]; exposure to PM10: AOR, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.46-3.12]). All regional pollutant estimates were scaled to twice the standard deviation of the distribution for all pregnancy estimates. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution, nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5, and PM10 during pregnancy and during the first year of life was associated with autism. Further epidemiological and toxicological examinations of likely biological pathways will help determine whether these associations are causal.
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        Genomics, intellectual disability, and autism.

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          Perinatal exposure to hazardous air pollutants and autism spectrum disorders at age 8.

          Hazardous air pollutants are plausible candidate exposures for autism spectrum disorders. They have been explored in recent studies for their role in the development of these disorders. We used a prevalent case-control design to screen perinatal exposure to 35 hazardous air pollutants for further investigation in autism etiology. We included 383 children with autism spectrum disorders and, as controls, 2,829 children with speech and language impairment. All participants were identified from the records-based surveillance of 8-year-old children conducted by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network in North Carolina (for children born in 1994 and 1996) and West Virginia (born in 1992 and 1994). Exposures to ambient concentrations of metal, particulate, and volatile organic air pollutants in the census tract of the child's birth residence were assigned from the 1996 National Air Toxics Assessment annual-average model. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for autism spectrum disorders and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), comparing across the 20th and 80th percentiles of log-transformed hazardous air pollutant concentration among the selected controls, using semi-Bayes logistic models and adjusting for sampling variables (surveillance year and state), a priori demographic confounders from the birth certificate and census, and covarying air pollutants. We estimated many near-null ORs, including those for metals, established human neurodevelopmental toxicants, and several pollutants that were elevated in a similar study in California. Hazardous air pollutants with more precise and elevated OR estimates included methylene chloride, 1.4 (95% CI = 0.7-2.5), quinoline, 1.4 (1.0-2.2), and styrene, 1.8 (1.0-3.1). Our screening design was limited by exposure misclassification of air pollutants and the use of an alternate developmental disorder as the control group, both of which may have biased results toward the null. Despite these limitations, methylene chloride, quinoline, and styrene emerged (based on this analysis and prior epidemiologic evidence) as candidates that warrant further investigation for a possible role in autism etiology.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
            Author notes
            Address for correspondence: Dr. Baojin Ding, Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. E-mail: bjding86@ 123456gmail.com
            Journal
            J Neurosci Rural Pract
            J Neurosci Rural Pract
            JNRP
            Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            0976-3147
            0976-3155
            Oct-Dec 2015
            : 6
            : 4
            : 465-466
            4691997
            JNRP-6-465
            10.4103/0976-3147.169776
            Copyright: © Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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            Neurosciences

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