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      Strategies to Minimize Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheter Use

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          While the use of arteriovenous grafts has recently declined, there has been an astronomical increase in hemodialysis patients dialyzing with tunneled dialysis catheters (TDCs). Recent data have indicated that over 70% of the patients with end-stage renal disease initiate dialysis with a catheter. Additionally, up to 27% of the end-stage renal disease patients in the US are using TDCs as their permanent access, with placement rates having doubled since 1996. Although most modern catheters claim to provide adequate blood flow for dialysis, they are associated with the highest incidence of complications, morbidity and mortality when compared with other types of vascular access. It is for these reasons that the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guideline 30 as well as the Fistula First Change Concept 7 emphasize limiting the use of catheters and fostering the creation of arteriovenous fistulae. Early referral has clearly been shown to minimize the use of TDCs and maximize fistulae. This report focuses on the role of additional measures that minimize TDC use, such as dialysis modality presentation and peritoneal dialysis, vascular access education, preoperative vascular mapping and salvage of early failure and thrombosed fistulae.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Type of vascular access and mortality in U.S. hemodialysis patients.

          Vascular access (VA) complications account for 16 to 25% of hospital admissions. This study tested the hypothesis that the type of VA in use is correlated with overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. Data were analyzed from the U.S. Renal Data System Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 1, a random sample of 5507 patients, prevalent on hemodialysis as of December 31, 1993. The relative mortality risk during a two-year observation was analyzed by Cox-regression methods with adjustments for demographic and comorbid conditions. Using similar methods, cause-specific analyses also were performed for death caused by infection and cardiac causes. In diabetic mellitus (DM) patients with end-stage renal disease, the associated relative mortality risk was higher for those with arteriovenous graft (AVG; RR = 1.41, P < 0.003) and central venous catheter (CVC; RR = 1.54, P < 0.002) as compared with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). In non-DM patients, those with CVC had a higher associated mortality (RR = 1.70, P < 0.001), as did to a lesser degree those with AVG (RR = 1.08, P = 0.35) when compared with AVF. Cause-specific analyses found higher infection-related deaths for CVC (RR = 2.30, P < 0.06) and AVG (RR = 2.47, P < 0.02) compared with AVF in DM; in non-DM, risk was higher also for CVC (RR = 1.83, P < 0.04) and AVG (RR = 1.27, P < 0.33). In contrast to our hypothesis that AV shunting increases cardiac risk, deaths caused by cardiac causes were higher in CVC than AVF for both DM (RR = 1.47, P < 0.05) and non-DM (RR = 1.34, P < 0.05) patients. This case-mix adjusted analysis suggests that CVC and AVG are correlated with increased mortality risk when compared with AVF, both overall and by major causes of death.
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            Vascular access and increased risk of death among hemodialysis patients.

            Hemodialysis with a venous catheter increases the risk of infection. The extent to which venous catheters are associated with an increased risk of death among hemodialysis patients has not been extensively studied. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 7497 prevalent hemodialysis patients to assess the association between dialysis with a venous catheter and risk of death due to all causes and to infection. A tunneled cuffed catheter was used for access in 12% of the patients and non-cuffed, not tunneled catheter in 2%. Younger age (P = 0.0005), black race (P = 0.0022), female gender (P = 0.0004), short duration since starting dialysis (P = 0.0003) and impaired functional status (P = 0.0001) were independently associated with increased use of catheter access. The proportion of patients who died was higher among those who were dialyzed with a non-cuffed (16.8%) or cuffed (15.2%) catheter compared to those dialyzed with either a graft (9.1%) or a fistula (7.3%; P < 0.001). The proportion of deaths due to infection was higher among patients dialyzed with a catheter (3.4%) compared to those dialyzed with either a graft (1.2%) or a fistula (0.8%; P < 0.001). The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for all-cause and infection-related death among patients dialyzed with a catheter was 1.4 (1.1, 1.9) and 3.0 (1.4, 6.6), respectively, compared to those with an arteriovenous (AV) fistula. Venous catheters are associated with an increased risk of all-cause and infection-related mortality among hemodialysis patients.
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              A strategy for increasing use of autogenous hemodialysis access procedures: impact of preoperative noninvasive evaluation.

              We studied the efficacy of preoperative noninvasive assessment of the upper extremity to identify arteries and veins suitable for hemodialysis access to increase our use of autogenous fistulas (AF). From Sep. 1, 1994, to Apr. 1, 1997, 172 patients who required chronic hemodialysis underwent segmental upper extremity Doppler pressures and duplex ultrasound with mapping of arteries and veins. The following criteria were necessary for satisfactory arterial inflow: absence of a pressure gradient between arms, patent palmar arch, and arterial lumen diameter 2.0 mm or more. The criteria necessary for satisfactory venous outflow were venous luminal diameter greater than or equal to 2.5 mm for AF and greater than or equal to 4.0 mm for synthetic bridging grafts (BG) and continuity with distal superficial veins in the arm. Intraoperative and duplex ultrasound measurements were compared. Contemporary experience was compared with the 2-year period (1992 to 1994) before implementation of the protocol. During the period from Sep. 1, 1994, to Apr. 1, 1997, 108 patients (63%) had AF, 52 (30%) had prosthetic BG, and 12 (7%) had permanent catheters (PC) placed. Early failure was seen in 8.3% of AFs. Primary cumulative patency rates were 83% for AF and 74% for BG at 1 year (p < 0.05), with a mean clinical follow-up of 15.2 months. No postoperative infections were observed with AF, whereas six infections (12%) were observed with BG and two (17%) with PC insertion. During the period from June 1, 1992, to Aug. 31, 1994, 183 procedures were performed with a distribution of 14% AF, 62% BG, and 24% PC. In this earlier period the AF early failure rate was 36%, and the patency rates were 48%, 63%, and 48% for AF, BG, and PC, respectively (mean follow-up, 13.8 months). A protocol of noninvasive assessment increased use of AFs. The cumulative patency rate of AFs was improved, and early failure rates were reduced when compared with the preceding institutional experience. Routine noninvasive assessment is recommended to document adequacy of arterial inflow and delineate venous outflow to maximize opportunities for AF.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                December 2005
                23 December 2005
                : 24
                : 1
                : 90-94
                Section of Interventional Nephrology, Division of Nephrology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Fla., USA
                89443 Blood Purif 2006;24:90–94
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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