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      Updated analysis of changes in locomotor activities across periods in an international ice hockey game

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to examine changes in time-motion patterns of elite male ice hockey players during an international game with special reference to the development of fatigue. Ten elite male ice hockey players were filmed during an official international game. Detailed time-motion patterns and behaviours (effective playing, stoppage and resting times, number of shifts, low- and high-intensity skating activities across periods as well as passing, shooting and body checking) were analysed during the three game periods. Shift duration averaged 85.72±4.89 s (44.01±5.71 s of effective playing time and 41.71±4.07 s of stoppage) and was repeated ~7.4±1.8 times per period. Mean effective playing time and effective time per shift decreased over the periods (-6.8±17.3%, P = 0.18, d = 0.71 and -8.5±12.7%, P = 0.20, d = 0.24, respectively), resulting in a shorter distance covered (-12.8±5.7%, P = 0.16, d = 0.46) from period 1 to 3. At similar time intervals, stoppage (+8.2±9.8%, P<0.05, d = 0.78) and bench resting period (+35.6±34.0%, P<0.05, d = 1.26) also increased. The number of sprints performed in period 3 was significantly lower than in period 1 (-46.7±32.1%, P<0.01, d = 1.12). This was accompanied by a lower effective time (-16.8±24.9%, P<0.05, d = 0.82) spent in high-intensity activities (fast forward skating, forward sprinting and fast backward and sprinting) – particularly in forward sprints (-54.8±20.7%, P<0.01, d = 1.07) – in period 3 vs. 1. Detailed analysis of players’ time-motion patterns of an international ice hockey game indicates that the capacity to perform intense actions is impeded towards the end of the match (period 3). Assessing performance fatigability may help practitioners to tailor ice hockey-specific training routines to help prevent in-game premature and/or excessive fatigue development.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue.

          The aim of this study was to assess physical fitness, match performance and development of fatigue during competitive matches at two high standards of professional soccer. Computerized time-motion analyses were performed 2-7 times during the competitive season on 18 top-class and 24 moderate professional soccer players. In addition, the players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. The top-class players performed 28 and 58% more (P < 0.05) high-intensity running and sprinting, respectively, than the moderate players (2.43 +/- 0.14 vs 1.90 +/- 0.12 km and 0.65 +/- 0.06 vs 0.41 +/- 0.03 km, respectively). The top-class players were better (11%; P < 0.05) on the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test than the moderate players (2.26 +/- 0.08 vs 2.04 +/- 0.06 km, respectively). The amount of high-intensity running, independent of competitive standard and playing position, was lower (35-45%; P < 0.05) in the last than in the first 15 min of the game. After the 5-min period during which the amount of high-intensity running peaked, performance was reduced (P < 0.05) by 12% in the following 5 min compared with the game average. Substitute players (n = 13) covered 25% more (P < 0.05) ground during the final 15 min of high-intensity running than the other players. The coefficient of variation in high-intensity running was 9.2% between successive matches, whereas it was 24.8% between different stages of the season. Total distance covered and the distance covered in high-intensity running were higher (P < 0.05) for midfield players, full-backs and attackers than for defenders. Attackers and full-backs covered a greater (P < 0.05) distance in sprinting than midfield players and defenders. The midfield players and full-backs covered a greater (P < 0.05) distance than attackers and defenders in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (2.23 +/- 0.10 and 2.21 +/- 0.04 vs 1.99 +/- 0.11 and 1.91 +/- 0.12 km, respectively). The results show that: (1) top-class soccer players performed more high-intensity running during a game and were better at the Yo-Yo test than moderate professional players; (2) fatigue occurred towards the end of matches as well as temporarily during the game, independently of competitive standard and of team position; (3) defenders covered a shorter distance in high-intensity running than players in other playing positions; (4) defenders and attackers had a poorer Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance than midfielders and full-backs; and (5) large seasonal changes were observed in physical performance during matches.
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            Repeated-sprint ability - part I: factors contributing to fatigue.

            Short-duration sprints (<10 seconds), interspersed with brief recoveries (<60 seconds), are common during most team and racket sports. Therefore, the ability to recover and to reproduce performance in subsequent sprints is probably an important fitness requirement of athletes engaged in these disciplines, and has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). This review (Part I) examines how fatigue manifests during repeated-sprint exercise (RSE), and discusses the potential underpinning muscular and neural mechanisms. A subsequent companion review to this article will explain a better understanding of the training interventions that could eventually improve RSA. Using laboratory and field-based protocols, performance analyses have consistently shown that fatigue during RSE typically manifests as a decline in maximal/mean sprint speed (i.e. running) or a decrease in peak power or total work (i.e. cycling) over sprint repetitions. A consistent result among these studies is that performance decrements (i.e. fatigue) during successive bouts are inversely correlated to initial sprint performance. To date, there is no doubt that the details of the task (e.g. changes in the nature of the work/recovery bouts) alter the time course/magnitude of fatigue development during RSE (i.e. task dependency) and potentially the contribution of the underlying mechanisms. At the muscle level, limitations in energy supply, which include energy available from phosphocreatine hydrolysis, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative metabolism, and the intramuscular accumulation of metabolic by-products, such as hydrogen ions, emerge as key factors responsible for fatigue. Although not as extensively studied, the use of surface electromyography techniques has revealed that failure to fully activate the contracting musculature and/or changes in inter-muscle recruitment strategies (i.e. neural factors) are also associated with fatigue outcomes. Pending confirmatory research, other factors such as stiffness regulation, hypoglycaemia, muscle damage and hostile environments (e.g. heat, hypoxia) are also likely to compromise fatigue resistance during repeated-sprint protocols.
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              The physiological load imposed on basketball players during competition.

              In this study, the intensities of activity and movement patterns during men's basketball were investigated by videoing the movements and monitoring the heart rate and blood lactate responses of eight elite players during competition. The results are expressed according to 'live time', which is actual playing time, and 'total time', which includes live time as well as all stoppages in play. The mean (+/- S.D.) frequency of all activities was 997 +/- 183, with a change in movement category every 2.0 s. A mean total of 105 +/- 52 high-intensity runs (mean duration 1.7 s) was recorded for each game, resulting in one high-intensity run every 21 s during live time. Sixty percent of live time was spent engaged in low-intensity activity, while 15% was spent in high-intensity activity. The mean heart rate (HR) during live time was 169 +/- 9 beats min-1 (89 +/- 2% peak HR attained during laboratory testing); 75% of live time was spent with a HR response of greater than 85% peak HR. The mean blood lactate concentration was 6.8 +/- 2.8 mM, indicating the involvement of glycolysis in the energy demands of basketball. It is concluded that the physiological requirements of men's basketball are high, placing considerable demands on the cardiovascular and metabolic capacities of players.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biol Sport
                Biol Sport
                JBS
                Biology of Sport
                Institute of Sport in Warsaw
                0860-021X
                2083-1862
                27 August 2018
                September 2018
                : 35
                : 3
                : 261-267
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory Sport, Expertise and Performance (EA 7370), Research Department, French Institute of Sport (INSEP), Paris, France
                [2 ]ISSUL, Institute of Sports Sciences, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Franck Brocherie, INSEP, 11 Avenue de Tremblay, 75012 Paris, France. Ph. +33 (0)1 41 74 43 54. Email franck.brocherie@ 123456insep.fr
                Article
                77826
                10.5114/biolsport.2018.77826
                6224850
                Copyright © Biology of Sport 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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