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      Effects of Nefopam on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

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          Abstract

          Background

          Nefopam is a centrally acting non-opioid analgesic agent. Its analgesic properties may be related to the inhibitions of monoamine reuptake and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The antinociceptive effect of nefopam has been shown in animal models of acute and chronic pain and in humans. However, the effect of nefopam on diabetic neuropathic pain is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the preventive effect of nefopam on diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in rats.

          Methods

          Pretreatment with nefopam (30 mg/kg) was performed intraperitoneally 30 min prior to an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). Mechanical and cold allodynia were tested before, and 1 to 4 weeks after drug administration. Thermal hyperalgesia was also investigated. In addition, the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) expression levels in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were evaluated.

          Results

          Pretreatment with nefopam significantly inhibited STZ-induced mechanical and cold allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia. The STZ injection increased TRPM8, but not TRPA1, expression levels in DRG neurons. Pretreatment with nefopam decreased STZ-induced TRPM8 expression levels in the DRG.

          Conclusions

          These results demonstrate that a nefopam pretreatment has strong antiallodynic effects on STZ-induced diabetic rats, which may be associated with TRPM8 located in the DRG.

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          Most cited references 34

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          The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway.

          Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient in 'hot' chilli peppers, elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. We have used an expression cloning strategy based on calcium influx to isolate a functional cDNA encoding a capsaicin receptor from sensory neurons. This receptor is a non-selective cation channel that is structurally related to members of the TRP family of ion channels. The cloned capsaicin receptor is also activated by increases in temperature in the noxious range, suggesting that it functions as a transducer of painful thermal stimuli in vivo.
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            Quantitative assessment of tactile allodynia in the rat paw.

             J Pogrel,  F. Bach,  T L Yaksh (1994)
            We applied and validated a quantitative allodynia assessment technique, using a recently developed rat surgical neuropathy model wherein nocifensive behaviors are evoked by light touch to the paw. Employing von Frey hairs from 0.41 to 15.1 g, we first characterized the percent response at each stimulus intensity. A smooth log-linear relationship was observed, with a median 50% threshold at 1.97 g (95% confidence limits, 1.12-3.57 g). Subsequently, we applied a paradigm using stimulus oscillation around the response threshold, which allowed more rapid, efficient measurements. Median 50% threshold by this up-down method was 2.4 g (1.81-2.76). Correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.91. In neuropathic rats, good intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was found for the up-down paradigm; some variability was seen in normal rats, attributable to extensive testing. Thresholds in a sizable group of neuropathic rats showed insignificant variability over 20 days. After 50 days, 61% still met strict neuropathy criteria, using survival analysis. Threshold measurement using the up-down paradigm, in combination with the neuropathic pain model, represents a powerful tool for analyzing the effects of manipulations of the neuropathic pain state.
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              Attenuated cold sensitivity in TRPM8 null mice.

              Thermosensation is an essential sensory function that is subserved by a variety of transducer molecules, including those from the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channel superfamily. One of its members, TRPM8 (CMR1), a ligand-gated, nonselective cation channel, is activated by both cold and chemical stimuli in vitro. However, its roles in cold thermosensation and pain in vivo have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that sensory neurons derived from TRPM8 null mice lack detectable levels of TRPM8 mRNA and protein and that the number of these neurons responding to cold (18 degrees C) and menthol (100 microM) is greatly decreased. Furthermore, compared with WT mice, TRPM8 null mice display deficiencies in certain behaviors, including icilin-induced jumping and cold sensation, as well as a significant reduction in injury-induced responsiveness to acetone cooling. These results suggest that TRPM8 may play an important role in certain types of cold-induced pain in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Korean J Pain
                Korean J Pain
                KJP
                The Korean Journal of Pain
                The Korean Pain Society
                2005-9159
                2093-0569
                October 2014
                01 October 2014
                : 27
                : 4
                : 326-333
                Affiliations
                Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [* ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Seong Soo Choi. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, Korea. Tel: +82-2-3010-1538, Fax: +82-2-470-1363, choiss@ 123456amc.seoul.kr
                Article
                10.3344/kjp.2014.27.4.326
                4196497
                Copyright © The Korean Pain Society, 2014

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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