The distribution of the juxtaglomerular (JG) changes is described in twenty cases of human renal artery stenosis. A method is given for counting JG cells. The changes were found to be unevenly distributed throughout the depth of the cortex in fourteen of the cases. Therefore, a biopsy from only part of the depth of the cortex, such as is often obtained in a percutaneous or open renal biopsy, may not give a true picture of the over-all change. The dominant change in the JG cells was hyperplasia, not granulation as in animals. In kidneys without atrophy the hyperplasia was greater in the superficial third of the cortex than in the middle third. In the kidneys with partial atrophy, the JG cell count was greatest in the more normal areas below the atrophic areas. Possible reasons for the distribution of changes are discussed. The distribution is probably related to the stimuli for renin release, and possible stimuli can be changes either in the afferent arteriole or in the nephron in the region of the macula densa.