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      Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm

      1 , 2 , 1

      Molecular Reproduction and Development

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 100

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          Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications.

           P. Mazur (1984)
          Cells can endure storage at low temperatures such as--196 degrees C for centuries. The challenge is to determine how they can survive both the cooling to such temperatures and the subsequent return to physiological conditions. A major factor is whether they freeze intracellularly. They do so if cooling is too rapid, because with rapid cooling insufficient cell water is removed osmotically to eliminate supercooling. Equations have been developed that describe the kinetics of this water loss and permit one to predict the likelihood of intracellular freezing as a function of cooling rate. Such predictions agree well with observations. Although the avoidance of intracellular freezing is usually necessary for survival, it is not sufficient. Slow freezing itself can be injurious. As ice forms outside the cell, the residual unfrozen medium forms channels of decreasing size and increasing solute concentration. The cells lie in the channels and shrink in osmotic response to the rising solute concentration. Prior theories have ascribed slow freezing injury to the concentration of solutes or the cell shrinkage. Recent experiments, however, indicate that the damage is due more to the decrease in the size of the unfrozen channels. This new view of the mechanism of slow freezing injury ought to facilitate the development of procedures for the preservation of complex assemblages of cells of biological, medical, and agricultural significance.
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            Revival of spermatozoa after vitrification and dehydration at low temperatures.

             C Polge,  A Smith,  A S Parkes (1949)
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              Storage of boar semen.

              The problems, aspects and methods of liquid storage and freeze-thawing of boar semen are discussed and a review is given on examination of spermatozoa by the recent fluorescent staining methods.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular Reproduction and Development
                Mol Reprod Dev
                Wiley
                1040452X
                September 2017
                September 2017
                June 19 2017
                : 84
                : 9
                : 802-813
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biotechnology of Animal and Human Reproduction (TechnoSperm), Unit of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Institute of Food and Agricultural Technology; University of Girona; Girona Spain
                [2 ]Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Unit of Animal Reproduction, Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Autonomous; University of Barcelona; Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès) Barcelona Spain
                Article
                10.1002/mrd.22840
                © 2017

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