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      Profile of semaglutide in the management of type 2 diabetes: design, development, and place in therapy

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          Abstract

          Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Low efficacy, weight gain, and hypoglycemia are the main pitfalls of previous treatments for T2DM. New therapies have been designed with the aim of improving the results in efficacy and quality of life. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) increase glucose-dependent insulin secretion, decrease gastric emptying, and reduce postprandial glucagon secretion. The last GLP-1 RA approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency was semaglutide. This review describes its pharmacology, core clinical data coming from the randomized controlled trials included in the development program, proven cardiovascular benefits, safety issues, and precautions for the use of semaglutide in special populations. Additionally, an overview of the positioning of semaglutide in T2DM therapy and practical issues regarding semaglutide initiation are offered.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Increased Mortality of Patients With Diabetes Reporting Severe Hypoglycemia

          OBJECTIVE Hypoglycemia is a cause of significant morbidity among patients with diabetes and may be associated with greater risk of death. We conducted a retrospective study to determine whether patient self-report of severe hypoglycemia is associated with increased mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adult patients (N = 1,020) seen in a specialty diabetes clinic between August 2005 and July 2006 were questioned about frequency of hypoglycemia during a preencounter interview; 7 were lost to follow-up and excluded from analysis. Mild hypoglycemia was defined as symptoms managed without assistance, and severe hypoglycemia was defined as symptoms requiring external assistance. Mortality data, demographics, clinical characteristics, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) were obtained from the electronic medical record after 5 years. Patients were stratified by self-report of hypoglycemia at baseline, demographics were compared using the two-sample t test, and risk of death was expressed as odds ratio (95% CI). Associations were controlled for age, sex, diabetes type and duration, CCI, HbA1c, and report of severe hypoglycemia. RESULTS In total, 1,013 patients with type 1 (21.3%) and type 2 (78.7%) diabetes were questioned about hypoglycemia. Among these, 625 (61.7%) reported any hypoglycemia, and 76 (7.5%) reported severe hypoglycemia. After 5 years, patients who reported severe hypoglycemia had 3.4-fold higher mortality (95% CI 1.5–7.4; P = 0.005) compared with those who reported mild/no hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS Self-report of severe hypoglycemia is associated with 3.4-fold increased risk of death. Patient-reported outcomes, including patient-reported hypoglycemia, may therefore augment risk stratification and disease management of patients with diabetes.
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            Diabetes and Hypertension: A Position Statement by the American Diabetes Association

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              Semaglutide versus dulaglutide once weekly in patients with type 2 diabetes (SUSTAIN 7): a randomised, open-label, phase 3b trial

              Despite common mechanisms of actions, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists differ in structure, pharmacokinetic profile, and clinical effects. This head-to-head trial compared semaglutide with dulaglutide in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2019
                20 February 2019
                : 13
                : 731-738
                Affiliations
                Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Hospital General de Segovia, Segovia, Spain, fgomezperalta@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Fernando Gomez-Peralta, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Hospital General de Segovia, Calle Luis Erik Clavería Neurólogo, S/N, 40002 Segovia, Spain, Tel +34 92 141 9100, Fax +34 92 141 9149, Email fgomezperalta@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-13-731
                10.2147/DDDT.S165372
                6388990
                © 2019 Gomez-Peralta and Abreu. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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