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      Non-invasive evaluation of cerebral perfusion in patients with transient ischemic attack: an fMRI study

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          Most cited references 26

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          Reduced transit-time sensitivity in noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging of human cerebral blood flow.

          Herein, we present a theoretical framework and experimental methods to more accurately account for transit effects in quantitative human perfusion imaging using endogenous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. The theoretical transit time sensitivities of both continuous and pulsed inversion spin tagging experiments are demonstrated. We propose introducing a delay following continuous labeling, and demonstrate theoretically that introduction of a delay dramatically reduces the transit time sensitivity of perfusion imaging. The effects of magnetization transfer saturation on this modified continuous labeling experiment are also derived, and the assumption that the perfusion signal resides entirely within tissue rather than the arterial microvasculature is examined. We present results demonstrating the implementation of the continuous tagging experiment with delay on an echoplanar scanner for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) in normal volunteers. By varying the delay, we estimate transit times in the arterial system, values that are necessary for assessing the accuracy of our quantification. The effect of uncertainties in the transit time from the tagging plane to the arterial microvasculature and the transit time to the tissue itself on the accuracy of perfusion quantification is discussed and found to be small in gray matter but still potentially significant in white matter. A novel method for measuring T1, which is fast, insensitive to contamination by cerebrospinal fluid, and compatible with the application of magnetization transfer saturation, is also presented. The methods are combined to produce quantitative maps of resting and hypercarbic CBF.
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            Identifying the perfusion deficit in acute stroke with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

            Temporal delay in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals may be sensitive to perfusion deficits in acute stroke. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) was added to a standard stroke MRI protocol. We calculated the time delay between the BOLD signal at each voxel and the whole-brain signal using time-lagged correlation and compared the results to mean transit time derived using bolus tracking. In all 11 patients, areas exhibiting significant delay in BOLD signal corresponded to areas of hypoperfusion identified by contrast-based perfusion MRI. Time delay analysis of rsfMRI provides information comparable to that of conventional perfusion MRI without the need for contrast agents. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.
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              Ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack in young adults: risk factors, diagnostic yield, neuroimaging, and thrombolysis.

              Approximately 10% to 14% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. To investigate the yield of diagnostic tests, neuroimaging findings, and treatment of ischemic strokes in young adults. We retrospectively reviewed data from our Get with the Guidelines-Stroke database from 2005 through 2010. University hospital tertiary stroke center. A total of 215 consecutive inpatients aged 18 to 45 years with ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack. The mean (SD) age was 37.5 (7) years; 51% were male. There were high incidence rates of hypertension (20%), diabetes mellitus (11%), dyslipidemia (38%), and smoking (34%). Relevant abnormalities were shown on cerebral angiography in 136 of 203 patients, on cardiac ultrasonography in 100 of 195, on Holter monitoring in 2 of 192; and on hypercoagulable panel in 30 of 189 patients. Multiple infarcts were observed in 31% and were more prevalent in individuals younger than age 35 years. Relevant arterial lesions were frequently detected in the middle cerebral artery (23%), internal carotid artery (13%), and vertebrobasilar arteries (13%). Cardioembolic stroke occurred in 47% (including 17% with isolated patent foramen ovale), and 11% had undetermined stroke etiology. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 3 (interquartile range, 0-9) and 81% had good outcome at hospital discharge. Of the 29 patients receiving thrombolysis (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 14; interquartile range, 9-17), 55% had good outcome at hospital discharge and none developed symptomatic brain hemorrhage. This study shows the contemporary profile of ischemic stroke in young adults admitted to a tertiary stroke center. Stroke etiology can be determined in nearly 90% of patients with modern diagnostic tests. The causes are heterogeneous; however, young adults have a high rate of traditional vascular risk factors. Thrombolysis appears safe and short-term outcomes are favorable.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Neurology
                J Neurol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0340-5354
                1432-1459
                January 2019
                November 16 2018
                January 2019
                : 266
                : 1
                : 157-164
                Article
                10.1007/s00415-018-9113-3
                © 2019

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