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      Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant, Cardioprotective and Nephroprotective Activity of Romanian Chicory Extract

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          Abstract

          The present study analyzed the methanol extract and tincture obtained from the spontaneous Romanian Cichorium intybus species, in order to evaluate polyphenols content and some biological properties. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods were used for the analysis of polyphenols and the antioxidant capacity was assessed in vitro with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazil) and FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) tests. The cardio-protective effects of Cichorii herba tincture on myocardial ischemia induced by isoprenaline and nephroprotection on renal failure induced by gentamicin were evaluated on rats. Also, aspartate aminotrasferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) were measured. The antioxidant effect was evaluated by determining total oxidative stress (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondyaldehide (MDA), total thiols (SH) and total nitrites and nitrates (NOx). Cichoric acid was the main polyphenolic compound. The extracts had moderate in vitro antioxidant activity but the in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were significant and associated with myocardial and renal dysfunction improvement. The results were attributed to the content of polyphenols in the extracts, for which reason C. intybus may be considered an important raw material for pharmaceuticals formulations recommended in the prevention or treatment of heart or kidney diseases.

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          The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay.

          A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.
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            NF-κB signaling in inflammation

            The transcription factor NF-κB regulates multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immune functions and serves as a pivotal mediator of inflammatory responses. NF-κB induces the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, including those encoding cytokines and chemokines, and also participates in inflammasome regulation. In addition, NF-κB plays a critical role in regulating the survival, activation and differentiation of innate immune cells and inflammatory T cells. Consequently, deregulated NF-κB activation contributes to the pathogenic processes of various inflammatory diseases. In this review, we will discuss the activation and function of NF-κB in association with inflammatory diseases and highlight the development of therapeutic strategies based on NF-κB inhibition.
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              Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked?

              Extensive research during the past 2 decades has revealed the mechanism by which continued oxidative stress can lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn could mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular, neurological, and pulmonary diseases. Oxidative stress can activate a variety of transcription factors including NF-κB, AP-1, p53, HIF-1α, PPAR-γ, β-catenin/Wnt, and Nrf2. Activation of these transcription factors can lead to the expression of over 500 different genes, including those for growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, cell cycle regulatory molecules, and anti-inflammatory molecules. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to transformation of a normal cell to tumor cell, tumor cell survival, proliferation, chemoresistance, radioresistance, invasion, angiogenesis, and stem cell survival is the focus of this review. Overall, observations to date suggest that oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and cancer are closely linked. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plants (Basel)
                Plants (Basel)
                plants
                Plants
                MDPI
                2223-7747
                30 December 2020
                January 2021
                : 10
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 V. Babeș Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; ale.epure@ 123456gmail.com (A.E.); dbenedec@ 123456umfcluj.ro (D.B.); dhanganu@ 123456umfcluj.ro (D.H.); ioniga@ 123456umfcluj.ro (I.O.)
                [2 ]Department of Physiopathology, Faculty of Medicine, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 V. Babeș Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 V. Babeș Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [4 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 V. Babeș Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; gheldiu.ana@ 123456umfcluj.ro
                [5 ]Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, “Babeș Bolyai” University, 11 Arany János Street, 400028 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; vlad.al.toma@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                Article
                plants-10-00064
                10.3390/plants10010064
                7823840
                33396775
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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