Background/Aims: Microalbuminuria and the metabolic syndrome are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of microalbuminuira and to document the relationship of microalbuminuria with the metabolic syndrome in a large population of Korean subjects. Methods: We examined the cross-sectional association of microalbuminuria with the components of the metabolic syndrome and with other cardiovascular risk factors in 6,588 Korean adults who took part in a health examination program. Results: The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 4.2% in the non-metabolic syndrome group (n = 5,902), and 14.4% in the metabolic syndrome group (n = 686). The odds ratio of microalbuminuria in the adults with the metabolic syndrome compared with those adults without the metabolic syndrome was 1.53 (1.13–2.07 95% CI). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, as compared with the subjects without an elevated blood pressure, a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, a high triglyceride level, a high plasma glucose level and a large waist circumference, the odds ratios for microalbuminuria with these components, after adjustment was made for the body mass index, the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and the homeostasis model assessment, were 2.17 (95% CI 1.71–2.76), 2.84 (95% CI 1.55–5.21), 1.30 (95% CI 1.03–1.65) and 2.68 (95% CI 2.04–3.51), respectively. The corresponding multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of microalbuminuria for the participants with 1, 2, 3, and 4 and 5 components of metabolic syndrome were 1.79 (95% CI 1.24–2.59), 2.35 (95% CI 1.58–3.51), 3.23 (95% CI 2.07–5.25), and 4.22 (95% CI 2.13–8.35), respectively. Conclusion: There was a significantly graded relationship between the number of metabolic syndrome components and the corresponding prevalence of microalbuminuria. These findings suggest microalbuminuria is strongly related with the components of the metabolic syndrome.