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      Glycosylation of Methoxylated Flavonoids in the Cultures of Isaria fumosorosea KCH J2

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          Abstract

          Flavonoids are widely described plant secondary metabolites with high and diverse pro-health properties. In nature, they occur mostly in the form of glycosides. Our research showed that an excellent way to obtain the sugar derivatives of flavonoids is through biotransformations with the use of entomopathogenic filamentous fungi as biocatalysts. In the current paper, we described the biotransformations of five methoxylated flavonoid compounds (2′-methoxyflavanone, 3′-methoxyflavanone, 4′-methoxyflavanone, 6-methoxyflavanone, and 6-methoxyflavone) in cultures of Isaria fumosorosea KCH J2. As a result, we obtained twelve new flavonoid 4- O-methylglucopyranosides. The products were purified with methods that enabled the reduction of the consumption of organic solvents (preparative TLC and flash chromatography). The structures of the products were confirmed with spectroscopic methods (NMR: 1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY). The compounds obtained by us expand the library of available flavonoid derivatives and can be used in biological research.

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          Bioavailability of the Polyphenols: Status and Controversies

          The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed.
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            Flavonoid Bioavailability and Attempts for Bioavailability Enhancement

            Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous plant-based foods. Flavonoids have shown promising health promoting effects in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies. They have shown antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory effects as well as ability to modulate cell signaling and gene expression related disease development. Low bioavailability of flavonoids has been a concern as it can limit or even hinder their health effects. Therefore, attempts to improve their bioavailability in order to improve the efficacy of flavonoids are being studied. Further investigations on bioavailability are warranted as it is a determining factor for flavonoid biological activity.
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              Bioactive flavonoids in medicinal plants: Structure, activity and biological fate

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                09 October 2018
                October 2018
                : 23
                : 10
                Affiliations
                Department of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Norwida 25, Wrocław 50-375, Poland; janeczko13@ 123456interia.pl (T.J.); ekostrzew@ 123456gmail.com (E.K.-S.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: monika.dymarska@ 123456gmail.com or monika.dymarska@ 123456upwr.edu.pl ; Tel.: +48-71-320-5257
                Article
                molecules-23-02578
                10.3390/molecules23102578
                6222689
                30304815
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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