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Reduced Insulinotropic Effect of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide in First-Degree Relatives of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes

American Diabetes Association

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      Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and ?-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man

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        Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction as precursors of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies of Pima Indians.

        The relative roles of obesity, insulin resistance, insulin secretory dysfunction, and excess hepatic glucose production in the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are controversial. We conducted a prospective study to determine which of these factors predicted the development of the disease in a group of Pima Indians. A body-composition assessment, oral and intravenous glucose-tolerance tests, and a hyperinsulinemic--euglycemic clamp study were performed in 200 non-diabetic Pima Indians (87 women and 113 men; mean [+/- SD] age, 26 +/- 6 years). The subjects were followed yearly thereafter for an average of 5.3 years. Diabetes developed in 38 subjects during follow-up. Obesity, insulin resistance (independent of obesity), and low acute plasma insulin response to intravenous glucose (with the degree of obesity and insulin resistance taken into account) were predictors of NIDDM: The six-year cumulative incidence of NIDDM was 39 percent in persons with values below the median for both insulin action and acute insulin response, 27 percent in those with values below the median for insulin action but above that for acute insulin response, 13 percent in those with values above the median for insulin action and below that for acute insulin response, and 0 in those with values originally above the median for both characteristics. Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for the development of NIDDM: A low acute insulin response to glucose is an additional but weaker risk factor.
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          Normalization of fasting hyperglycaemia by exogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36 amide) in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients.

          Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (7-36 amide) is a physiological incretin hormone that is released after nutrient intake from the lower gut and stimulates insulin secretion at elevated plasma glucose concentrations. Previous work has shown that even in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients GLP-1 (7-36 amide) retains much of its insulinotropic action. However, it is not known whether the magnitude of this response is sufficient to normalize plasma glucose in Type 2 diabetic patients with poor metabolic control. Therefore, in 10 Type 2 diabetic patients with unsatisfactory metabolic control (HbA1c 11.6 +/- 1.7%) on diet and sulphonylurea therapy (in some patients supplemented by metformin or acarbose), 1.2 pmol x kg-1 x min-1 GLP-1 (7-36 amide) or placebo was infused intravenously in the fasting state (plasma glucose 13.1 +/- 0.6 mmol/l). In all patients, insulin (by 17.4 +/- 4.7 nmol x 1-1 x min; p = 0.0157) and C-peptide (by 228.0 +/- 39.1 nmol x 1-1 x min; p = 0.0019) increased significantly over basal levels, glucagon was reduced (by -1418 +/- 308 pmol x 1-1 x min) and plasma glucose reached normal fasting concentrations (4.9 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) within 4 h of GLP-1 (7-36 amide) administration, but not with placebo. When normal fasting plasma glucose concentrations were reached insulin returned towards basal levels and plasma glucose concentrations remained stable despite the ongoing infusion of GLP-1 (7-36 amide). Therefore, exogenous GLP-1 (7-36 amide) is an effective means of normalizing fasting plasma glucose concentrations in poorly-controlled Type 2 diabetic patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            10.2337/diabetes.50.11.2497

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