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      Association between being employed in a smoke-free workplace and living in a smoke-free home: Evidence from 15 low and middle income countries☆

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To assess whether being employed in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home in 15 low and middle income countries (LMICs).

          Methods

          Country-specific individual level analyses of cross-sectional Global Adult Tobacco Survey data (2008–2011) from 15 LMICs was conducted using multiple logistic regression. The dependent variable was living in a smoke-free home; the independent variable was being employed in a smoke-free workplace. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, residence, region, education, occupation, current smoking, current smokeless tobacco use and number of household members. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis.

          Results

          In each country, the percentage of participants employed in a smoke-free workplace who reported living in a smoke-free home was higher than those employed in a workplace not smoke-free. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of living in a smoke-free home among participants employed in a smoke-free workplace (vs. those employed where smoking occurred) were statistically significant in 13 of the 15 countries, ranging from 1.12 [95% CI 0.79–1.58] in Uruguay to 2.29 [1.37–3.83] in China. The pooled AOR was 1.61 [1.46–1.79].

          Conclusion

          In LMICs, employment in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home. Accelerated implementation of comprehensive smoke-free policies is likely to result in substantial population health benefits in these settings.

          Highlights

          • Individual level Global Adult Tobacco Survey data analyzed for 15 LMICs (2008–2010)
          • Studied association of smoke-free workplace policy with living in smoke-free home
          • Implementation of smoke-free workplace policy varies greatly across LMICs.
          • Smoke-free homes 60% more likely with employment in smoke-free workplaces in LMICs
          • 100% smoke-free policy in LMICs changes social norms around exposing others to SHS.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 22

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          Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries.

          Exposure to second-hand smoke is common in many countries but the magnitude of the problem worldwide is poorly described. We aimed to estimate the worldwide exposure to second-hand smoke and its burden of disease in children and adult non-smokers in 2004. The burden of disease from second-hand smoke was estimated as deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for children and adult non-smokers. The calculations were based on disease-specific relative risk estimates and area-specific estimates of the proportion of people exposed to second-hand smoke, by comparative risk assessment methods, with data from 192 countries during 2004. Worldwide, 40% of children, 33% of male non-smokers, and 35% of female non-smokers were exposed to second-hand smoke in 2004. This exposure was estimated to have caused 379,000 deaths from ischaemic heart disease, 165,000 from lower respiratory infections, 36,900 from asthma, and 21,400 from lung cancer. 603,000 deaths were attributable to second-hand smoke in 2004, which was about 1·0% of worldwide mortality. 47% of deaths from second-hand smoke occurred in women, 28% in children, and 26% in men. DALYs lost because of exposure to second-hand smoke amounted to 10·9 million, which was about 0·7% of total worldwide burden of diseases in DALYs in 2004. 61% of DALYs were in children. The largest disease burdens were from lower respiratory infections in children younger than 5 years (5,939,000), ischaemic heart disease in adults (2,836,000), and asthma in adults (1,246,000) and children (651,000). These estimates of worldwide burden of disease attributable to second-hand smoke suggest that substantial health gains could be made by extending effective public health and clinical interventions to reduce passive smoking worldwide. Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare and Bloomberg Philanthropies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Tobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys.

            Despite the high global burden of diseases caused by tobacco, valid and comparable prevalence data for patterns of adult tobacco use and factors influencing use are absent for many low-income and middle-income countries. We assess these patterns through analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Between Oct 1, 2008, and March 15, 2010, GATS used nationally representative household surveys with comparable methods to obtain relevant information from individuals aged 15 years or older in 14 low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam). We compared weighted point estimates and 95% CIs of tobacco use between these 14 countries and with data from the 2008 UK General Lifestyle Survey and the 2006-07 US Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. All these surveys had cross-sectional study designs. In countries participating in GATS, 48·6% (95% CI 47·6-49·6) of men and 11·3% (10·7-12·0) of women were tobacco users. 40·7% of men (ranging from 21·6% in Brazil to 60·2% in Russia) and 5·0% of women (0·5% in Egypt to 24·4% in Poland) in GATS countries smoked a tobacco product. Manufactured cigarettes were favoured by most smokers (82%) overall, but smokeless tobacco and bidis were commonly used in India and Bangladesh. For individuals who had ever smoked daily, women aged 55-64 years at the time of the survey began smoking at an older age than did equivalently aged men in most GATS countries. However, those individuals who had ever smoked daily and were aged 25-34-years when surveyed started to do so at much the same age in both sexes. Quit ratios were very low (<20% overall) in China, India, Russia, Egypt, and Bangladesh. The first wave of GATS showed high rates of smoking in men, early initiation of smoking in women, and low quit ratios, reinforcing the view that efforts to prevent initiation and promote cessation of tobacco use are needed to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Bloomberg Philanthropies' Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Brazilian and Indian Governments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Association between smoke-free legislation and hospitalizations for cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases: a meta-analysis.

               S Glantz,  E Tan (2012)
              Secondhand smoke causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Smoke-free legislation is associated with a lower risk of hospitalization and death from these diseases. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted by law comprehensiveness to determine the relationship between smoke-free legislation and hospital admission or death from cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases. Studies were identified by using a systematic search for studies published before November 30, 2011 with the use of the Science Citation Index, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Embase and references in identified articles. Change in hospital admissions (or deaths) in the presence of a smoke-free law, duration of follow-up, and law comprehensiveness (workplaces only; workplaces and restaurants; or workplaces, restaurants, and bars) were recorded. Forty-five studies of 33 smoke-free laws with median follow-up of 24 months (range, 2-57 months) were included. Comprehensive smoke-free legislation was associated with significantly lower rates of hospital admissions (or deaths) for all 4 diagnostic groups: coronary events (relative risk, 0.848; 95% confidence interval 0.816-0.881), other heart disease (relative risk, 0.610; 95% confidence interval, 0.440-0.847), cerebrovascular accidents (relative risk, 0.840; 95% confidence interval, 0.753-0.936), and respiratory disease (relative risk, 0.760; 95% confidence interval, 0.682-0.846). The difference in risk following comprehensive smoke-free laws does not change with longer follow-up. More comprehensive laws were associated with larger changes in risk. Smoke-free legislation was associated with a lower risk of smoking-related cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, with more comprehensive laws associated with greater changes in risk.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Prev Med
                Prev Med
                Preventive Medicine
                Academic Press
                0091-7435
                1096-0260
                1 February 2014
                February 2014
                : 59
                : 100
                : 47-53
                Affiliations
                [a ]Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), New Delhi, India
                [b ]London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), UK
                [c ]Imperial College London, UK
                [d ]University of California San Francisco (UCSF), USA
                [e ]South Asia Network for Chronic Diseases (SANCD), New Delhi, India
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Public Health Foundation of India, PHD Chamber, 2nd floor, 4/2 Sirifort Institutional Area, August Kranti Marg, New Delhi 110016, India. gaurang.nazar@ 123456ext.phfi.org Gaurang.Nazar@ 123456lshtm.ac.uk
                S0091-7435(13)00451-9
                10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.11.017
                3898883
                24287123
                © 2013 The Authors

                This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to certain conditions.

                Categories
                Article

                Medicine

                workplace, smoke-free policy, low- and middle-income countries, secondhand smoke, tobacco, gats

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