59
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: an environmental sensor integrating immune responses in health and disease

      ,
      Nature Reviews Immunology
      Springer Nature

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references142

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells.

          We describe de novo generation of IL-17-producing T cells from naive CD4 T cells, induced in cocultures of naive CD4 T cells and naturally occurring CD4+ CD25+ T cells (Treg) in the presence of TLR3, TLR4, or TLR9 stimuli. Treg can be substituted by TGFbeta1, which, together with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, supports the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells, a process that is amplified by IL-1beta and TNFalpha. We could not detect a role for IL-23 in the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells but confirmed its importance for their survival and expansion. Transcription factors GATA-3 and T-bet, as well as its target Hlx, are absent in IL-17-producing T cells, and they do not express the negative regulator for TGFbeta signaling, Smad7. Our data indicate that, in the presence of IL-6, TGFbeta1 subverts Th1 and Th2 differentiation for the generation of IL-17-producing T cells.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Microglia Function in the Central Nervous System During Health and Neurodegeneration.

            Microglia are resident cells of the brain that regulate brain development, maintenance of neuronal networks, and injury repair. Microglia serve as brain macrophages but are distinct from other tissue macrophages owing to their unique homeostatic phenotype and tight regulation by the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. They are responsible for the elimination of microbes, dead cells, redundant synapses, protein aggregates, and other particulate and soluble antigens that may endanger the CNS. Furthermore, as the primary source of proinflammatory cytokines, microglia are pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses. Alterations in microglia functionality are implicated in brain development and aging, as well as in neurodegeneration. Recent observations about microglia ontogeny combined with extensive gene expression profiling and novel tools to study microglia biology have allowed us to characterize the spectrum of microglial phenotypes during development, homeostasis, and disease. In this article, we review recent advances in our understanding of the biology of microglia, their contribution to homeostasis, and their involvement in neurodegeneration. Moreover, we highlight the complexity of targeting microglia for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology Volume 35 is April 26, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Generation of Pathogenic Th17 Cells in the Absence of TGF-β Signaling

              CD4+ T cells that selectively produce interleukin (IL)-17, are critical for host defense and autoimmunity 1–4 . Crucial for T helper17 (Th17) cells in vivo 5,6 , IL-23 has been thought to be incapable of driving initial differentiation. Rather, IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 have been argued to be the factors responsible for initiating specification 7–10 . Herein, we show that Th17 differentiation can occur in the absence of TGF-β signaling. Neither IL-6 nor IL-23 alone efficiently generated Th17 cells; however, these cytokines in combination with IL-1β effectively induced IL-17 production in naïve precursors, independently of TGF-β. Epigenetic modification of the Il17a/Il17f and Rorc promoters proceeded without TGF-β1, allowing the generation of cells that co-expressed Rorγt and T-bet. T-bet+ Rorγt+ Th17 cells are generated in vivo during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), and adoptively transferred Th17 cells generated with IL-23 without TGF-β1 were pathogenic in this disease model. These data suggest an alternative mode for Th17 differentiation. Consistent with genetic data linking IL23R with autoimmunity, our findings re-emphasize the importance of IL-23 and therefore have may have therapeutic implications.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Immunology
                Nat Rev Immunol
                Springer Nature
                1474-1733
                1474-1741
                February 4 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41577-019-0125-8
                30718831
                18bd3dc9-fcc6-4882-ab96-52ca647a90cd
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article