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      Characterizing thermal tolerance in the invasive yellow-legged hornet ( Vespa velutina nigrithorax): The first step toward a green control method

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          Abstract

          The yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina nigrithorax (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Lepeletier 1836), is native to Southeast Asia and has been unintentionally introduced in France. The species is spreading in many areas of the world. The European Union has classified V. velutina as a species of concern because the hornet significantly affects beekeeping activities, mostly by preying honeybees ( Apis mellifera) at beehive entrances. No current control method is simultaneously eco-friendly and effective. Here, we aimed to develop a greener technique for destroying V. velutina nests, inspired by a defense behavior used by the eastern honeybee ( Apis cerana), the “heat ball”. In the laboratory, we tested how V. velutina of different sexes, castes, and developmental stages responded to different heat exposure systems employing a range of temperature levels. Overall, the time of death decreased as temperature increased. Hornets died faster when the temperature was gradually increased than when it was instantaneously increased; larvae seemed to be more thermally tolerant. The most promising and potential technique for quickly destroying hornet nests may be steam injection, as the humid airflow system killed all hornets within 13 seconds, and therefore could be a good candidate for a green nest control method.

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          Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude.

          The impact of anthropogenic climate change on terrestrial organisms is often predicted to increase with latitude, in parallel with the rate of warming. Yet the biological impact of rising temperatures also depends on the physiological sensitivity of organisms to temperature change. We integrate empirical fitness curves describing the thermal tolerance of terrestrial insects from around the world with the projected geographic distribution of climate change for the next century to estimate the direct impact of warming on insect fitness across latitude. The results show that warming in the tropics, although relatively small in magnitude, is likely to have the most deleterious consequences because tropical insects are relatively sensitive to temperature change and are currently living very close to their optimal temperature. In contrast, species at higher latitudes have broader thermal tolerance and are living in climates that are currently cooler than their physiological optima, so that warming may even enhance their fitness. Available thermal tolerance data for several vertebrate taxa exhibit similar patterns, suggesting that these results are general for terrestrial ectotherms. Our analyses imply that, in the absence of ameliorating factors such as migration and adaptation, the greatest extinction risks from global warming may be in the tropics, where biological diversity is also greatest.
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            The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change

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              Biotic Invasions: Causes, Epidemiology, Global Consequences, and Control

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: InvestigationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                6 October 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 10
                Affiliations
                IRBI, UMR 7261 CNRS—University of Tours, Tours, France
                Wildlife Conservation Society Canada, CANADA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-13809
                10.1371/journal.pone.0239742
                7537856
                33021997
                © 2020 Ruiz-Cristi et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Pages: 14
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: La Manche Province
                Award Recipient :
                This study was supported by funding from the French Department of La Manche (a regional grant). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Life Cycles
                Larvae
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Entomology
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Honey Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Honey Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Honey Bees
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Species Colonization
                Invasive Species
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Entomology
                Insects
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Habits
                Nesting Habits
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Habits
                Nesting Habits
                Earth Sciences
                Atmospheric Science
                Meteorology
                Humidity
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                Europe
                European Union
                France
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Compounds
                Carbon Dioxide
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

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