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      A multivariable prediction model for recovery patterns and time course of symptoms improvement in hemifacial spasm following microvascular decompression


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          Microvascular decompression (MVD) success rates exceed 90% in hemifacial spasm (HFS). However, postoperative recovery patterns and durations are variable.


          We aim to study factors that might influence the postoperative patterns and duration needed until final recovery.


          Only patients following de-novo MVD with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were included. Overall trend of recovery was modeled. Patients were grouped according to recognizable clinical recovery patterns. Uni- and multivariable analyses were used to identify the factors affecting allocation to the identified patterns and time needed to final recovery.


          A total of 323 (92.6%) patients had > 90% symptom improvement, and 269 (77.1%) patients had complete resolution at the last follow-up. The overall trend of recovery showed steep remission within the first 6 months, followed by relapse peaking around 8 months with a second remission ~ 16 months. Five main recovery patterns were identified.

          Pattern analysis showed that evident proximal indentation of the facial nerve at root exit zone (REZ), males and facial palsy are associated with earlier recovery at multivariable and univariable levels. anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), AICA/vertebral artery compressions and shorter disease durations are related to immediate resolution of the symptoms only on the univariable level. Time analysis showed that proximal indentation (vs. distal indentation), males and facial palsy witnessed significantly earlier recoveries.


          Our main finding is that in contrast to peripheral indentation, proximal indentation of the facial nerve at REZ is associated with earlier recovery. Postoperative facial palsy and AICA compressions are associated with earlier recoveries. We recommend a minimum of 1 year before evaluating the final outcome of MVD for HFS.

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          Most cited references42

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          Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD): the TRIPOD Statement.

          Prediction models are developed to aid healthcare providers in estimating the probability or risk that a specific disease or condition is present (diagnostic models) or that a specific event will occur in the future (prognostic models), to inform their decision-making. However, the overwhelming evidence shows that the quality of reporting of prediction model studies is poor. Only with full and clear reporting of information on all aspects of a prediction model can risk of bias and potential usefulness of prediction models be adequately assessed. The Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) Initiative developed a set of recommendations for the reporting of studies developing, validating or updating a prediction model, whether for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. This article describes how the TRIPOD Statement was developed.
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            Gender differences of symptom reporting and medical health care utilization in the German population.

            Gender differences in morbidity have been widely confirmed in representative health surveys in North America and Europe. Significantly more women than men suffer from somatic complaints. It is less clear whether differences in symptom reporting provide an impact on health care utilization and to which degree psychosocial factors exhibit confounding influence. We analyzed data from a representative health examination survey in Germany with 7466 participants in the age range of 25 to 69 years. The analysis confirmed an overall excess in female symptom reporting, both in the total sample (n = 7460; p < or = 0.001) and in the healthy subsample (n = 906, p < or = 0.01). Also, female utilization of medical services was higher (p < or = 0.0001). A simultaneous age related increase in the prevalence of symptom reporting in both groups peaked in the age group of 55-59 years followed by a subsequent slight decrease in higher age groups whereas utilization steadily increased over the adult life span in both sexes. As expected, more medical utilization was associated with higher symptom reporting levels. Nevertheless, females constantly exhibited more medical utilization than males in all symptom reporting groups. Age and marital status had no univariate influence on symptom reporting whereas low social class status (p = 0.001), poor perceived/self assessed health (p < 0.0001), and high levels of chronic distress (p < 0.0001) were associated with more symptom reporting. In multivariate analysis, the female gender lost its significance on heightened symptom reporting. Poor perceived/self assessed health had the most pronounced impact on symptom count (F-value 59.1; p < 0.001). The present study confirms a female excess of symptom reporting and utilization of medical services. Nevertheless, symptom reporting and utilization are not closely related. The gender gap in symptom reporting may be largely explained by low social class status, high levels of chronic distress and poor perceived/self assessed health.
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              The long-term outcome of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia.

              Several surgical procedures to treat trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux) are available, but most reports provide only short-term follow-up information. We describe the long-term results of surgery in 1185 patients who underwent microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve for medically intractable trigeminal neuralgia. The outcome of the procedure was assessed prospectively with annual questionnaires. Of the 1185 patients who underwent microvascular decompression during the 20-year study period, 1155 were followed for 1 year or more after the operation. The median follow-up period was 6.2 years. Most postoperative recurrences of tic took place in the first two years after surgery. Thirty percent of the patients had recurrences of tic during the study period, and 11 percent underwent second operations for the recurrences. Ten years after surgery, 70 percent of the patients (as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis) had excellent final results-that is, they were free of pain without medication for tic. An additional 4 percent had occasional pain that did not require long-term medication. Ten years after the procedure, the annual rate of the recurrence of tic was less than 1 percent. Female sex, symptoms lasting more than eight years, venous compression of the trigeminal-root entry zone, and the lack of immediate postoperative cessation of tic were significant predictors of eventual recurrence. Having undergone a previous ablative procedure did not lessen a patient's likelihood of having a cessation of tic after microvascular decompression, but the rates of burning and aching facial pain, as reported on the last follow-up questionnaire, were higher if a trigeminal-ganglion lesion had been created with radiofrequency current before microvascular decompression. Major complications included two deaths shortly after the operation (0.2 percent) and one brain-stem infarction (0.1 percent). Sixteen patients (1 percent) had ipsilateral hearing loss. Microvascular decompression is a safe and effective treatment for trigeminal neuralgia, with a high rate of long-term success.

                Author and article information

                ahmed.almenabbawy@med.uni-greifswald.de , a.menabbawy@gmail.com
                Acta Neurochir (Wien)
                Acta Neurochir (Wien)
                Acta Neurochirurgica
                Springer Vienna (Vienna )
                1 February 2022
                1 February 2022
                : 164
                : 3
                : 833-844
                [1 ]GRID grid.5603.0, Department of Neurosurgery, , University Medicine Greifswald, ; Greifswald, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.7776.1, ISNI 0000 0004 0639 9286, Department of Neurosurgery, , Kasr Alainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, ; Cairo, Egypt
                [3 ]GRID grid.7776.1, ISNI 0000 0004 0639 9286, Department of Public Health, , Kasr Alainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, ; Cairo, Egypt
                [4 ]GRID grid.5603.0, Institute of Bioinformatics, , University Medicine Greifswald, ; Greifswald, Germany
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funded by: Universitätsmedizin Greifswald (8976)
                Original Article - Functional Neurosurgery - Other
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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2022


                microvascular decompression, hemifacial spasm, delayed recovery, time course of recovery


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