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      Oral migration of Dirofilaria repens after creeping dermatitis Translated title: Migration orale de Dirofilaria repens après une dermatite rampante

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          Abstract

          We report an autochthonous case of oral dirofilariasis in a 46-year-old female patient exposed in South-Eastern France. The patient first presented eyelid creeping dermatitis of one-week duration, then a sub-mucosal nodule appeared in the cheek. The entire nodule was removed surgically. Histologically, the nodule appeared as inflammatory tissue in which a worm was seen. The molecular analysis, based on cox1 and 12S sequences, identified Dirofilaria repens. Ivermectin treatment was given prior to diagnosis, while taking into consideration the most common causes of creeping dermatitis, but treatment was ineffective. The oral form of dirofilariasis is uncommon and could lead to diagnostic wandering.

          Translated abstract

          Nous rapportons un cas autochtone de dirofilariose buccale chez une patiente de 46 ans exposée dans le sud-est de la France. La patiente a d’abord présenté une dermatite rampante des paupières d’une durée d’une semaine, puis un nodule sous-muqueux est apparu dans la joue. Le nodule entier a été retiré chirurgicalement. Histologiquement, le nodule est apparu comme un tissu inflammatoire dans lequel un ver a été observé. L’analyse moléculaire, basée sur des séquences de cox1 et 12S, a identifié Dirofilaria repens. Le traitement à l’ivermectine a été administré avant le diagnostic tout en tenant compte des causes les plus courantes de la dermatite rampante, mais il était inefficace. La forme orale de la dirofilariose est rare et pourrait conduire à une errance diagnostique.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Recent advances on Dirofilaria repens in dogs and humans in Europe

          Dirofilaria repens is a nematode affecting domestic and wild canids, transmitted by several species of mosquitoes. It usually causes a non-pathogenic subcutaneous infection in dogs and is the principal agent of human dirofilariosis in the Old World. In the last decades, D. repens has increased in prevalence in areas where it has already been reported and its distribution range has expanded into new areas of Europe, representing a paradigmatic example of an emergent pathogen. Despite its emergence and zoonotic impact, D. repens has received less attention by scientists compared to Dirofilaria immitis. In this review we report the recent advances of D. repens infection in dogs and humans, and transmission by vectors, and discuss possible factors that influence the spread and increase of this zoonotic parasite in Europe. There is evidence that D. repens has spread faster than D. immitis from the endemic areas of southern Europe to northern Europe. Climate change affecting mosquito vectors and the facilitation of pet travel seem to have contributed to this expansion; however, in the authors’ opinion, the major factor is likely the rate of undiagnosed dogs continuing to perpetuate the life-cycle of D. repens. Many infected dogs remain undetected due to the subclinical nature of the disease, the lack of rapid and reliable diagnostic tools and the poor knowledge and still low awareness of D. repens in non-endemic areas. Improved diagnostic tools are warranted to bring D. repens diagnosis to the state of D. immitis diagnosis, as well as improved screening of imported dogs and promotion of preventative measures among veterinarians and dog owners. For vector-borne diseases involving pets, veterinarians play a significant role in prevention and should be more aware of their responsibility in reducing the impact of the zoonotic agents. In addition, they should enhance multisectorial collaboration with medical entomologists and the public health experts, under the concept and the actions of One Health-One Medicine. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13071-018-3205-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Shaking the Tree: Multi-locus Sequence Typing Usurps Current Onchocercid (Filarial Nematode) Phylogeny

            During the past twenty years, a number of molecular analyses have been performed to determine the evolutionary relationships of Onchocercidae, a family of filarial nematodes encompassing several species of medical or veterinary importance. However, opportunities for broad taxonomic sampling have been scarce, and analyses were based mainly on 12S rDNA and coxI gene sequences. While being suitable for species differentiation, these mitochondrial genes cannot be used to infer phylogenetic hypotheses at higher taxonomic levels. In the present study, 48 species, representing seven of eight subfamilies within the Onchocercidae, were sampled and sequences of seven gene loci (nuclear and mitochondrial) analysed, resulting in the hitherto largest molecular phylogenetic investigation into this family. Although our data support the current hypothesis that the Oswaldofilariinae, Waltonellinae and Icosiellinae subfamilies separated early from the remaining onchocercids, Setariinae was recovered as a well separated clade. Dirofilaria, Loxodontofilaria and Onchocerca constituted a strongly supported clade despite belonging to different subfamilies (Onchocercinae and Dirofilariinae). Finally, the separation between Splendidofilariinae, Dirofilariinae and Onchocercinae will have to be reconsidered.
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              Subcutaneous dirofilariosis ( Dirofilaria repens ): an infection spreading throughout the old world

              Background Two main Dirofilaria species infect dogs: D. immitis and D. repens. While D. immitis has a worldwide distribution, D. repens is currently found only in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Adult D. repens are located in subcutaneous tissues of natural hosts where they survive for long periods of time. First-stage larvae, microfilariae, circulate in the peripheral bloodstream, where they are taken up by the mosquito intermediate hosts. Infected mosquitoes then transmit infective third-stage (L3) larvae to new hosts through the blood meal. In dogs, most infections are asymptomatic, although cutaneous disorders such as pruritus, dermal swelling, subcutaneous nodules, and ocular conjunctivitis can be observed. Currently, two factors have increased the concerns about this parasitic infection 1) its spread throughout the European countries and to other continents and its prevalence in dog populations, where in some cases it has overcome D. immitis; and 2) its zoonotic potential, which is much greater than that of D. immitis. Results Different hypotheses can be put forward to explain these concerns. First, climate change has allowed more favorable conditions for survival of culicid vectors. Second, accidental hosts such as humans may have a less efficient immune reaction against a parasite that is located in subcutaneous tissues, and thus less exposed to the host’s immune response than, for instance, D. immitis. Furthermore, the absence of clinical signs in the majority of canine infections and the difficulty in diagnosing the infection, due to the lack of serologic tests and thus the reliance on the identification of microfilariae and differentiation from D. immitis to confirm the presence of the parasite, favor the further spread of this species. Finally, among the macrocyclic lactones currently used to prevent heartworm infection, only moxidectin has been found to be fully effective against the infective larvae transmitted by mosquitoes and partially effective (efficacy 96%) against adult D. repens in experimental studies. Conclusions Dirofilaria repens infection is much more difficult than D. immitis to diagnose and control in the reservoir population (microfilaremic dogs). In addition, lack of familiarity with D. repens infection could lead to lack of vigilance underestimation for this parasite. The number of human cases in Europe and Asia is currently a serious public health concern. Medical doctors and veterinarians must collaborate closely for better control and surveillance of D. repens infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                18 March 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, Service de Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale et Stomatologie, Hôpital Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Sorbonne Université 75013 Paris France
                [2 ] Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hôpital Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Sorbonne Université 75013 Paris France
                [3 ] Unité Molécules de Communication et Adaptation des Microorganismes (MCAM, UMR7245), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CNRS 75231 Paris France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: quentin.hennocq@ 123456aphp.fr
                Article
                parasite190172 10.1051/parasite/2020015
                10.1051/parasite/2020015
                7079549
                32186510
                © Q. Hennocq et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 20, Pages: 5
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