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      Haemodiafiltration Does Not Reduce the Frequency of Intradialytic Hypotensive Episodes when Compared to Cooled High-Flux Haemodialysis

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Intradialytic hypotension remains the commonest complication of outpatient haemodialysis (HD) treatments. On-line haemodiafiltration (HDF) has been reported to reduce the frequency of intradialytic hypotension. We introduced on-line HDF into our satellite dialysis program, and prospectively audited the effect of HDF on cardiovascular stability. Methods: 34 patients’ dialysis schedules (Tuesday/Thursday/Saturday) were converted to online post-dilutional HDF, and 44 patients’ dialysis schedules (Monday/Wednesday/Friday) remained on high-flux HD. Blood pressure and intra-treatment complications were monitored prospectively for 12 months. Results: There was no significant change in pre-treatment mean arterial blood pressure in the HDF group during the 12 months of the study (pre-treatment 113.7 ± 0.7 mm Hg vs. 109.3 ± 2.8 after 12 months), or for the HD cohort (113.9 ± 2.7 vs. 117.9 ± 2.6). However, the frequency of intradialytic hypotensive episodes was greater for the HDF cohort: 25.9 versus 16.5% in the HD cohort, p = 0.0116. During HDF, on average >16 litres of substitution fluid was used and the median temperature was 36°C (35°C–36°C), higher than the dialysate in the HD cohort which was 35°C (35°C–36°C), p < 0.05. Conclusion: In this study, HDF did not improve blood pressure control or reduce the frequency of intradialytic hypotensive episodes compared to high-flux HD using cooled dialysate.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Achieving blood pressure targets during dialysis improves control but increases intradialytic hypotension.

          Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of mortality in patients with end-stage kidney disease treated by regular hemodialysis. To improve blood pressure control and reduce cardiovascular risk, the United Kingdom Renal Association standards committee introduced pre- and post-dialysis target blood pressures of less than 140/90 and 130/80 mm Hg, respectively. We audited blood pressure control and symptomatic intradialytic hypotension requiring fluid resuscitation in the Greater London area renal centers that serve 2630 patients. The study captured 7890 hemodialysis sessions during a 1-week period where only 36% of the patients achieved the pre-dialysis target and 42% the post-dialysis target, with a wide variation between centers. Different antihypertensive medication prescriptions did not affect achievement of these targets. Fifteen percent of the patients suffered symptomatic hypotension requiring fluid resuscitation associated with significantly greater interdialytic weight gains. Our study found that intradialytic hypotension was significantly greater in centers that achieved better post-dialysis blood pressure targeting.
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            Intradialytic complications during hemodialysis.

            With the advent of developments and advances in hemodialysis machine technology, dialysate water purification, and dialyzers, the clinical spectrum of intradialytic complications has changed over the decades. In the pioneering days of hemodialysis, patients could develop allergic reactions to dialyzer membranes, sterilizing and reprocessing agents, coupled with machines that could not accurately control ultrafiltration rates, and chemically and bacterially contaminated dialysate. Whereas today, although cardiovascular problems remain the most common intradialytic complication, these are mainly due to the time restraints of trying to cope with excessive dialytic weight gains and achieve target dry weight on a thrice weekly schedule, coupled with an aging elderly dialysis population with increasing co-morbidity.
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              Hemodiafiltration: clinical evidence and remaining questions.

              Currently, about two-thirds of hemodialysis patients worldwide are treated with high-flux membranes. This is most likely based on the assumption that the extended solute clearance that can be obtained with more open membranes will contribute to improved clinical outcome. To have full advantage of convective solute removal, hemodiafiltration offers a superior modality as compared to both low-flux and high-flux hemodialysis. However, this technique is offered to only a minority of patients. In this review, we summarize the available clinical evidence on hemodiafiltration and define still remaining questions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2011
                September 2011
                08 July 2011
                : 119
                : 2
                : c138-c144
                Affiliations
                aCenter for Nephrology, Royal Free Hospital, and bCenter for Nephrology, University College London, Medical School, Royal Free Campus, London, UK
                Author notes
                *Thomas Oates, Center for Nephrology, Royal Free Hospital, University College London, Medical School, Royal Free Campus, London NW3 2 QG (UK), Tel. +44 207 830 2930, E-Mail oates_tom@hotmail.com
                Article
                324428 Nephron Clin Pract 2011;119:c138–c144
                10.1159/000324428
                21757951
                © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Haemodiafiltration, Blood pressure, Intradialytic hypotension

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