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      Investigating the effect of eye cosmetics on the tear film: current insights

      ,

      Clinical Optometry

      Dove Medical Press

      eyeliner, makeup, periocular, ocular surface, dry eye, contamination, cosmetic migration

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          Abstract

          Eye cosmetics are frequently applied among female populations of all age groups around the world. However, the migration of cosmetic products across the eyelid margin has been reported, and this is thought to exacerbate tear film instability and symptoms of dry eye. Furthermore, numerous adverse effects and complications have also been reported with eye cosmetic wear, and the associated inflammatory responses may potentially increase the propensity toward ocular surface disease development. Prospective studies have demonstrated that eyeliner application at the inner eyelash line is associated with higher levels of tear film contamination and ocular discomfort than application at the outer periocular skin. A recent randomized trial also highlighted the potential for eye cosmetic wear to compromise the efficacy of lipid-based dry eye supplements. This review outlines the current evidence base and understanding regarding the periocular migration of eye cosmetic products, the effects of cosmetic product contamination on tear film function, and the use of dry eye treatments in eye cosmetic wearers.

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          Most cited references 44

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          TFOS DEWS II Tear Film Report

          The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership.
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            A five-year study of cosmetic reactions

            During 64 months (1977 to 1983), twelve dermatologists from various sections of the United States studied a total of 713 patients with cosmetic dermatitis out of an estimated total of 13,216 patients with contact dermatitis. The number of patients seen for all causes during this period was 281,100. An important finding was that half of the patients or physicians were unaware that a cosmetic was responsible for their dermatitis. Skin care products, hair preparations (including colors), and facial makeup were responsible for the majority of the reactions. The most important objective was identification of causative ingredients. Eighty-seven percent of the subjects had patch tests. Fragrance, preservatives (Quaternium-15, formaldehyde, imidazolidinyl urea, and parabens), p-phenylenediamine, and glyceryl monothioglycolate were the most frequently identified allergic sensitizers, in that order. In addition to the clinical data, the study permitted assessment of the frequency of cosmetic reactions, although the data may not be entirely representative of the country at large because of the special interests of the dermatologists involved.
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              Do cosmetics enhance female Caucasian facial attractiveness?

              This study sought to investigate whether cosmetics do improve female facial attractiveness, and to determine whether the contribution of different cosmetic products are separable, or whether they function synergistically to enhance female beauty. Ten volunteers were made up by a beautician under five cosmetics conditions: (i) no make-up; (ii) foundation only; (iii) eye make-up only; (iv) lip make-up only; and (v) full facial make-up. Male and female participants were asked to view the 10 sets of five photographs, and rank each set from most attractive to least attractive. As predicted, faces with full make-up were judged more attractive than the same faces with no make-up. Sex differences within the results were also apparent. Women judged eye make-up as contributing most to the attractiveness. Men rated eye make-up and foundation as having a significant impact on the attractiveness of a full facial makeover. Surprisingly, lipstick did not appear to contribute to attractiveness independently.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Optom (Auckl)
                Clin Optom (Auckl)
                Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports
                Clinical Optometry
                Dove Medical Press
                1179-2752
                2018
                03 April 2018
                : 10
                : 33-40
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, jp.craig@ 123456auckland.ac.nz
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jennifer P Craig, Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand, Tel +64 9 923 8173, Fax +64 9 367 7173, Email jp.craig@ 123456auckland.ac.nz
                Article
                opto-10-033
                10.2147/OPTO.S150926
                6118859
                © 2018 Wang and Craig. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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