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      Insight into the protonation and K(I)-interaction of the inositol 1,2,3-trisphosphate as provided by 31P NMR and theoretical calculations

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          Back in the water: the return of the inositol phosphates.

          Following the discovery of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate as a second messenger, many other inositol phosphates were discovered in quick succession, with some understanding of their synthesis pathways and a few guesses at their possible functions. But then it all seemed to go comparatively quiet, with an explosion of interest in the inositol lipids. Now the water-soluble phase is once again becoming a focus of interest. Old and new data point to a new vista of inositol phosphates, with functions in many diverse aspects of cell biology, such as ion-channel physiology, membrane dynamics and nuclear signalling.
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            Nuclear magnetic resonance as a tool for determining protonation constants of natural polyprotic bases in solution.

            The acid-base properties of the tetramine 1,5,10,14-tetraazatetradecane H2N(CH2)3NH(CH2)4NH(CH2)3NH2 (spermine) in deuterated water have been studied at 40 degrees C at various pD values by means of NMR spectroscopy. Both one-dimensional 13C[1H] spectra and two-dimensional 1H/13C heterocorrelation spectra with inverse detection have been recorded. A calculation procedure of general validity has been developed to unravel the effect of rapid exchange between the various species in equilibrium as a function of pD of the solution. The method of calculation used in this part of the new computer program, HYPNMR, is independent of the equilibrium model. HYPNMR has been used to obtain the basicity constants of spermine with respect to the D+ cation at 40 degrees C. Calculations have been performed using either 13C[1H] or 1H/13C data individually, or using both sets of data simultaneously. The results of the latter calculations were practically the same as the results obtained with the single data sets; the calculated errors on the refined parameters were a little smaller. After appropriate empirical corrections for temperature effects and for the presence of D+ in contrast to H+, the calculated constants are compared with spermine protonation constants which have been determined previously both from potentiometric and NMR data.
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              Solution behaviour of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in the presence of multivalent cations. Prediction of a neutral pentamagnesium species under cytosolic/nuclear conditions.

              myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) is an ubiquitous and abundant molecule in the cytosol and nucleus of eukaryotic cells whose biological functions are incompletely known. A major hurdle for studying the biology of InsP6 has been a deficiency of a full understanding of the chemistry of its interaction with divalent and trivalent cations. This deficiency has limited our appreciation of how it remains in solution within cells, and the likely degree to which it might interact in vivo with physiologically important cations such as Ca2+ and Fe3+. We report here the initial part of the description of the InsP6-multivalent cation chemistry, including its solution equilibria studied by high resolution potentiometry and (for the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple) cyclic voltammetry. InsP6 forms anionic complexes of high affinities and 1:1 stoichiometry with Mg(II), Ca(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II). Of particular importance is the observation that, in the exceptional case of Mg(II), InsP6 forms the species [Mg5(H2L)] (L representing fully deprotonated InsP6); this soluble neutral species is predicted to be the predominant form of InsP6 under nuclear or cytosolic conditions in animal cells. Contrary to previous suggestions, InsP6 is predicted not to interact with cytosolic calcium even when calcium is increased during signalling events. In vitro, InsP6 also forms high affinity 1:1 complexes with Fe(III) and Al(III). However, our data predict that in the biological context of excess free Mg(II), neither Fe(III) nor Fe(II) are complexed by InsP6.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Molecular Structure
                Journal of Molecular Structure
                Elsevier BV
                00222860
                February 2011
                February 2011
                : 986
                : 1-3
                : 75-85
                Article
                10.1016/j.molstruc.2010.11.050
                © 2011

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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