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      Dimorfismo sexual e estrutura perineal em Coendou prehensilis (Ouriço-cacheiro) Translated title: Sexual dimorphism and perineal structure in Coendou prehensilis (Prehensile-tailed porcupine)

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          Abstract

          RESUMO: Coendou prehensilis é um mamífero da ordem Rodentia, que é composta por cinco subordens: Sciuromorfos, a qual pertencem os esquilos; Castorimorfos, onde encontramos os castores; Myomorfos, a qual encontramos os ratos; Anomaluromorfos, Lebre-saltadora, e os Histricomorfos, onde observamos a capivara. Utilizamos nesta pesquisa o ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou prehensilis) sendo um macho e uma fêmea, ambos adultos. Estes animais foram encontrados em óbito por atropelamento nas rodovias da região de Pirassununga-SP e cedidos para o Laboratório de Anatomia do Departamento de Medicina Veterinária da Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade de São Paulo FZEA/USP devido a permissão do Ibama para estudar os animais (Registro SISBIO no. 43274-1), os quais foram fixados com formaldeído a 10% e dissecados na região do períneo. Os resultados mostraram que a única característica que nos permite diferenciar machos de fêmeas, é o espaço entre o ânus e as genitais dos animais, sendo que o macho apresenta essa distância maior que a fêmea. O períneo é uma região extra cavitária de delimitação losangular, sendo essa delimitação feita pelos ossos interpubiano, púbico e pelos processos do púbis e ísquio. O períneo do Coendou prehensílis macho é composto por cinco principais músculos, sendo três encontrados dispostos no diafragma urogenital superficial, (Músculos isquiocavernosos, M. bulbocavernoso e Mm. Bulboesponjosos) e dois no diafragma pélvico (M. levantador do ânus e M. retrator do pênis). O períneo da fêmea é composto pelos músculos (isquiocavernoso, o bulboesponjoso, levantador do ânus e esfíncter anal externo). Conclui-se que ambos os sexos possuem os músculos isquiocavernosos, Mm. Bulboesponjosos, M. levantador do ânus e esfíncter anal externo, além de que o estudo da região perineal dos animais é de grande importância, pois através do entendimento da função e localização de cada músculo, podemos contribuir para futuras pesquisas sobre reprodução e comportamento animal durante a cópula auxiliando para um melhor entendimento do potencial reprodutivo de roedores da família Erethizontidae, além de contribuir na base do desenvolvimento da biotecnologia aplicada à reprodução visando até mesmo à reprodução desses animais em cativeiro além do meio ambiente livre.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT: Coendou prehensilis is a mammal that belongs to the Rodentia order, which consists of five suborders: Sciuromorfos, to which the squirrels belongs; Castorimorfos where we have the beavers; Myomorfos, which include the mice; Anomaluromorfos, Hare jumper, and Hystricomorfos, where we have the capybara. We used the porcupine clerk in the research (Coendou prehensilis), one male and one female, both adults. These animals were transferred to the Laboratory of Anatomy, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo (FZEA/USP), originating from roadaccidents in Pirassununga, SP (Registration n. 43274-1 SISBIO). The animals were fixed with 10% formaldehyde and dissected in the perineum region. The results showed that the only feature which allows us to differentiate males from females is the space between anus and the genitals of the animals; the male has a larger space than the female. The perineum is an extra cavity region with lozenge definition, and this definition is formed by interpubic bones, the pubic and processes of the pubic and ischium. The male Coendou prehensilis perineum consists of five major muscles, three arranged on the urogenital diaphragm surface (ischiocavernosus muscles, M. bulbocavernosus and Mm. bulboesponjosos) and two in the pelvic diaphragm (M. levator ani and M. penis retractor). The female’s perineum is composed by ischiocavernosus, bulbospongiosus, levator ani and external anal sphincter muscles. We conclude that both sexes have the ischiocavernosus muscles, Mm. bulboesponjosos, M. levator ani and external anal sphincter, and it is very important to study the perineal region of the animals, because understanding the function and location of each muscle we can contribute to future research on reproduction and animal behavior during copulation, helping to a better knowledge about reproductive potential of Erethizontidae rodents, and to contribute in the applied biotechnology development of reproduction, what can be helpful even in captivity reproduction of these animals besides the ones in free environment.

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          Most cited references 32

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          The organization of the pudendal nerve in the male and female rat.

          Mature male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to compare the organization of the pudendal nerve in the two sexes. Experiments included incubating the cut pudendal nerve in diamidino-2-phenylindole HCl (DAPI), fast blue (FB), or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and injecting individual perineal muscles with these substances. In both sexes, incubation of the pudendal nerve labelled two motoneuron nuclei in the L5-L6 segments of the spinal cord. These nuclei are the dorsomedial (DM) and dorsolateral (DL) cell columns described by Schrøder (J. Comp. Neurol. 192:567-587, 1980). In agreement with previous studies, there were significantly more neurons in both nuclei in the male than in the female and the neurons were larger in the male. In both sexes, the DL and DM nuclei were characterized by a longitudinal dendritic structure. The DM nucleus also had numerous dendritic bundles extending across the midline, linking the DM nuclei bilaterally. Pudendal nerve afferent neurons were located in the L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglia. In the male, the afferent neurons were larger and more numerous. In both sexes, labelled pudendal afferent fibers in the spinal cord were located in the dorsal columns, the medial half of Lissauer's tract, the extreme medial edge of the dorsal horn, both ipsilaterally and contralaterally, and in a large terminal field in the dorsal gray commissure. No labelled afferents were seen in the intermediate or ventral gray. Perineal muscle injections established that there was no difference between males and females in the number of motoneurons innervating the external anal or urethral sphincters. In the female, urethral sphincter motoneurons accounted for almost all the DL motoneurons, and anal sphincter motoneurons accounted for almost all the DM motoneurons. The ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus muscles are vestigial in the female rat. In the male, neurons innervating the anal sphincter and bulbospongiosus muscles were intermingled in the DM nucleus. In contrast, in the DL nucleus, the urethral sphincter neurons were located in the lateral portion of the nucleus and the ischiocavernosus neurons were located in the medial portion.
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            Role of striated penile muscles in penile reflexes, copulation, and induction of pregnancy in the rat.

             Alan B. Sachs (1982)
            In 4 experiments, various striated penile muscles of the rat were excised. Without the ischiocavernosus (IC) muscles no dorsiflexions ('flips') of the glans penis occurred during ex copula reflex tests, but erections were unaffected. In attempted copulation, males lacking the IC muscles rarely gained intromission, apparently because dorsiflexion of the glans penis is necessary for penetration of the vagina. Nonetheless some males lacking the IC muscles displayed the gross motor pattern of intromission and ejaculated, but rarely within the vagina. Males lacking the bulbocavernosus (BC) and levator ani (LA) muscles were incapable of developing intense erections ('cups') in ex copula tests, but they did have lesser erections, probably due to vascular action. Males with excised BC and LA muscles displayed normal copulatory behaviour, including intromission and intravaginal ejaculation, but only 1/15 females mated to these males became pregnant. The infertility of the males was attributed in part to their inability to form the penile cup, which caused them to withdraw a larger portion of the seminal plug from the vagina and, presumably, prevented the plug from being tightly lodged against the cervix. In male rats copulation apparently requires co-ordination of the penile vasculature with the contraction of separate groups of striated penile muscles, each having a distinct contribution to the integrated pattern of copulation and, ultimately, to the male's fertility.
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              The reproductive organs of the female plains viscacha, Lagostomus maximus.

               B J Weir (1971)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                pvb
                Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira
                Pesq. Vet. Bras.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                0100-736X
                1678-5150
                December 2016
                : 36
                : 12
                : 1215-1220
                Affiliations
                São Paulo São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia orgdiv2Departamento de Cirurgia Brazil
                Pirassununga orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos orgdiv2Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Brazil
                Article
                S0100-736X2016001201215
                10.1590/s0100-736x2016001200013

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 6
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