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      X-raying winds in distant quasars: the first high-redshift wind duty cycle


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          Theoretical models of wind-driven feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) often identify Ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) as being the main cause for generating galaxy-size outflows, possibly the main actors in establishing the so-called AGN-galaxy co-evolution. UFOs are well characterized in local AGN but much less is known in quasars at the cosmic time when SF and AGN activity peaked (\(z\simeq1-3\)). It is therefore mandatory to search for evidences of UFOs in high-\(z\) sources to test the wind-driven AGN feedback models. Here we present a study of Q2237+030, the Einstein Cross, a quadruply-imaged radio-quiet lensed quasar located at \(z=1.695\). We performed a systematic and comprehensive temporally and spatially resolved X-ray spectral analysis of all the available Chandra and XMM-Newton data (as of September 2019). We find clear evidence for spectral variability, possibly due to absorption column density (or covering fraction) variability intrinsic to the source. We detect, for the first time in this quasar, a fast X-ray wind outflowing at \(v_{\rm out}\simeq0.1c\) that would be powerful enough (\(\dot{E}_{\rm kin}\simeq0.1 L_{\rm bol}\)) to significantly affect the host galaxy evolution. We report also on the possible presence of an even faster component of the wind (\(v_{\rm out}\sim0.5c\)). Given the large sample and long time interval spanned by the analyzed X-ray data, we are able to roughly estimate, for the first time in a high-\(z\) quasar, the wind duty cycle as \(\approx0.46\,(0.31)\) at \(90\%\,(95\%)\) confidence level. Finally, we also confirm the presence of a Fe K\(\alpha\) emission line with variable energy, which we discuss in the light of microlensing effects as well as considering our findings on the source.

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          Author and article information

          27 April 2020

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          18 pages, 11 figures, 7 tables, Accepted for publication in A&A
          astro-ph.HE astro-ph.GA

          Galaxy astrophysics, High energy astrophysical phenomena


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