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      Nonmuscle Tissues Contribution to Cancer Cachexia

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          Abstract

          Cachexia is a syndrome associated with cancer, characterized by body weight loss, muscle and adipose tissue wasting, and inflammation, being often associated with anorexia. In spite of the fact that muscle tissue represents more than 40% of body weight and seems to be the main tissue involved in the wasting that occurs during cachexia, recent developments suggest that tissues/organs such as adipose (both brown and white), brain, liver, gut, and heart are directly involved in the cachectic process and may be responsible for muscle wasting. This suggests that cachexia is indeed a multiorgan syndrome. Bearing all this in mind, the aim of the present review is to examine the impact of nonmuscle tissues in cancer cachexia.

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          Reversal of cancer cachexia and muscle wasting by ActRIIB antagonism leads to prolonged survival.

          Muscle wasting and cachexia have long been postulated to be key determinants of cancer-related death, but there has been no direct experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis. Here, we show that in several cancer cachexia models, pharmacological blockade of ActRIIB pathway not only prevents further muscle wasting but also completely reverses prior loss of skeletal muscle and cancer-induced cardiac atrophy. This treatment dramatically prolongs survival, even of animals in which tumor growth is not inhibited and fat loss and production of proinflammatory cytokines are not reduced. ActRIIB pathway blockade abolished the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the induction of atrophy-specific ubiquitin ligases in muscles and also markedly stimulated muscle stem cell growth. These findings establish a crucial link between activation of the ActRIIB pathway and the development of cancer cachexia. Thus ActRIIB antagonism is a promising new approach for treating cancer cachexia, whose inhibition per se prolongs survival. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Role of systemic inflammatory response in predicting survival in patients with primary operable cancer.

            Disease progression in cancer is dependent on the complex interaction between the tumor and the host inflammatory response. There is substantial evidence in advanced cancer that host factors, such as weight loss, poor performance status and the host systemic inflammatory response, are linked, and the latter is an important tumor-stage-independent predictor of outcome. Indeed, the systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by an elevated level of C-reactive protein, is now included in the definition of cancer cachexia. This review examines the role of the systemic inflammatory response in predicting survival in patients with primary operable cancer. Approximately 80 studies have evaluated the role of the systemic inflammatory response using biochemical or hematological markers, such as elevated C-reactive protein levels, hypoalbuminemia or increased white cell, neutrophil and platelet counts. Combinations of such factors have been used to derive simple inflammation-based prognostic scores, such as the Glasgow Prognostic Score, the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and the platelet:lymphocyte ratio. This review demonstrates that there is now good evidence that preoperative measures of the systemic inflammatory response predict cancer survival, independent of tumor stage, in primary operable cancer. The evidence is particularly robust in colorectal (including liver metastases), gastro-esophageal and renal cancers. As described in this article, measurement of the systemic inflammatory response is simple, reliable and can be clinically incorporated into current staging algorithms. This will provide the clinician with a better prediction of outcome, and therefore better treatment allocation in patients with primary operable cancer. Furthermore, systemic inflammation-based markers and prognostic scores not only identify patients at risk, but also provide well-defined therapeutic targets for future clinical trials.
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              Irisin is expressed and produced by human muscle and adipose tissue in association with obesity and insulin resistance.

              Recently irisin (encoded by Fndc5 gene) has been reported to stimulate browning and uncoupling protein 1 expression in sc adipose tissue of mice. The objective of the study was to investigate FNDC5 gene expression in human muscle and adipose tissue and circulating irisin according to obesity, insulin sensitivity, and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue FNDC5 gene expression and circulating irisin (ELISA) were analyzed in 2 different cohorts (n = 125 and n = 76); muscle FNDC5 expression was also evaluated in a subcohort of 34 subjects. In vitro studies in human preadipocytes and adipocytes and in induced browning of 3T3-L1 cells (by means of retinoblastoma 1 silencing) were also performed. In both sc and visceral adipose tissue, FNDC5 gene expression decreased significantly in association with obesity and was positively associated with brown adipose tissue markers, lipogenic, insulin pathway-related, mitochondrial, and alternative macrophage gene markers and negatively associated with LEP, TNFα, and FSP27 (a known repressor of brown genes). Circulating irisin and irisin levels in adipose tissue were significantly associated with FNDC5 gene expression in adipose tissue. In muscle, the FNDC5 gene was 200-fold more expressed than in adipose tissue, and its expression was associated with body mass index, PGC1α, and other mitochondrial genes. In obese participants, FNDC5 gene expression in muscle was significantly decreased in association with type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, muscle FNDC5 gene expression was significantly associated with FNDC5 and UCP1 gene expression in visceral adipose tissue. In men, circulating irisin levels were negatively associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Irisin was secreted from human adipocytes into the media, and the induction of browning in 3T3-L1 cells led to increased secreted irisin levels. Decreased circulating irisin concentration and FNDC5 gene expression in adipose tissue and muscle from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects suggests a loss of brown-like characteristics and a potential target for therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators Inflamm
                MI
                Mediators of Inflammation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                0962-9351
                1466-1861
                2015
                7 October 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                1Cancer Research Group, Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
                2Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                3BSA Nutrition Centre, 08195 Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Yona Keisari

                Article
                10.1155/2015/182872
                4615210
                26523094
                Copyright © 2015 Josep M. Argilés et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Immunology

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