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      Decrease in Urinary Excretion of Aquaporin-2 Associated with Impaired Urinary Concentrating Ability in Diabetic Nephropathy

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          Aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) is known to be expressed in the renal collecting duct cells and participates in urinary concentration in response to arginine vasopressin (AVP). The present study was undertaken to determine whether progression of renal dysfunction affects urinary excretion of AQP-2 in diabetic nephropathy. The study was composed of 8 control subjects and 14 patients with type 2 diabetes classified into two groups according to serum creatinine level (cut-off point; 1.5 mg/dl). After an 8-hour water deprivation, both urinary osmolality (U<sub>osm</sub>) and urinary excretion of AQP-2 significantly decreased in the diabetic patients with chronic renal failure as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, respectively). After a water load (10 ml/kg), no differences were found in plasma osmolality (P<sub>osm</sub>), AVP levels and U<sub>osm</sub>, whereas urinary excretion of AQP-2 significantly decreased in the patients with chronic renal failure as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05). These results indicate that the decreased urinary excretion of AQP-2 in diabetic nephropathy is due to the impaired cellular signaling of AVP in collecting duct cells, which may be partly involved in the urinary concentrating defect in renal failure.

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          Electrical conductivity measurements from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenlandice cores

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            Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 in patients with diabetes insipidus.

            Urine-concentrating ability is regulated by vasopressin. Recently, the specific water-channel protein of the renal collecting duct, known as aquaporin-2, was cloned. However, it is not certain whether this molecule is responsive to vasopressin. We measured the urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 and its response to vasopressin in 11 normal subjects and 9 patients with central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The urine samples were collected during periods of dehydration and hydration and after the administration of vasopressin. Urine samples were analyzed for aquaporin-2 by the Western blot assay and immunogold labeling, and the amount of aquaporin-2 was determined by radioimmunoassay. Aquaporin-2 was detectable in the urine in both soluble and membrane-bound forms. In the five normal subjects tested, the mean (+/- SE) urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 was 11.2 +/- 2.2 pmol per milligram of creatinine after a period of dehydration, and it decreased to 3.9 +/- 1.9 pmol per milligram of creatinine (P = 0.03) during the second hour after a period of hydration. In the six other normal subjects, an infusion of desmopressin (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) increased the urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 from 0.8 +/- 0.3 to 11.2 +/- 1.6 pmol per milligram of creatinine (P < 0.001). The five patients with central diabetes insipidus also had increases in urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 in response to the administration of vasopressin, but the four patients with X-linked or non-X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus did not. Aquaporin-2 is detectable in the urine, and changes in the urinary excretion of this protein can be used as an index of the action of vasopressin on the kidney.
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              Impaired aquaporin and urea transporter expression in rats with adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome.

              Nephrotic syndrome is associated with abnormal regulation of renal water excretion. To investigate the role of collecting duct water channels and solute transporters in this process, we have carried out semiquantitative immunoblotting of kidney tissues from rats with adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome. These experiments demonstrated that adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome is associated with marked decreases in expression of aquaporin-2, aquaporin-3, aquaporin-4, and the vasopressin-regulated urea transporter in renal inner medulla, indicative of a suppression of the capacity for water and urea absorption by the inner medullary collecting duct. In contrast, expression of the alpha(1)-subunit of the Na,K-ATPase in the inner medulla was unaltered. Light and electron microscopy of perfusion-fixed kidneys demonstrated that the collecting ducts are morphologically normal and unobstructed. Inner medullary expression of the descending limb water channel, aquaporin-1, was not significantly altered, pointing to a selective effect on the collecting duct. Aquaporin-2 and aquaporin-3 expression was also markedly diminished in the renal cortex, indicating that the effect is not limited to the inner medullary collecting duct. Differential centrifugation studies and immunocytochemistry in inner medullary thin sections demonstrated increased targeting of aquaporin-2 to the plasma membrane, consistent with the expected short-term action of vasopressin on aquaporin-2 trafficking. The extensive down-regulation of aquaporin and urea transporter expression may represent an appropriate renal response to the extracellular volume expansion observed in nephrotic syndrome, but may occur at the expense of decreased urinary concentrating and diluting capacity.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                October 2002
                02 September 2002
                : 92
                : 2
                : 445-448
                aDepartment of Medicine, from the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi, and bDepartment of Medicine, Jichi Medical School Omiya Medical Center, Saitama, Japan
                63285 Nephron 2002;92:445–448
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 12, Pages: 4
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/63285
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