Six male patients (aged 21-34 years) with isolated hypothalamic hypogonadism were given subcutaneous pulses of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone every 90 min for 14-74 weeks. The therapy produced an increase in testicular volume (4 patients) and a rise in serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone levels in every patient. Motile sperm developed in 3 patients after a mean of 17 weeks, but were not seen in other patients who were less sexually developed after a mean of 31 weeks of therapy. Computerized tomography scans of the pituitary fossa revealed an empty sella in 4 patients and a partially empty sella in 2. Subcutaneous pulsing of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone is a simple and safe way of inducing spermatogenesis, but it is more likely to be successful in patients whose pubertal development is otherwise near completion. Previous human chorionic gonadotro-phin and/or testosterone treatment does not interfere with and may benefit subsequent gonadotrophin-releasing hormone therapy.