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      Evaluation of the clinical effect of small-volume resuscitation on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency

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          Abstract

          Objective

          The objective of the present study was to explore the resuscitative effect of small-volume resuscitation on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency.

          Methods

          In this study, the resuscitative effects in 200 trauma patients with uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency were studied. Half of these patients were infused with hypertonic/hyperoncotic fluid (small-volume resuscitation group, n=100), whereas the rest were infused with Hespan and lactated Ringer’s solution (conventional fluid resuscitation group, n=100). The changes in hemodynamics, coagulation function, blood biochemistry, blood hematology, and the average infusion volume in both the groups were comparatively studied.

          Results

          It was found that the hemodynamics were improved in both the groups after resuscitation. Interestingly, compared with trauma patients infused with Hespan and lactated Ringer’s solution, the growth rate, range, and time duration of the mean arterial pressure of the patients in small-volume resuscitation group increased significantly, and the shock index decreased progressively; in the 60th min after the resuscitation, blood index including hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelet declined, whereas prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in both the groups, but these changes were less obvious in the small-volume group. In addition, the average infusion volume of patients in the small-volume group was less than that of patients in conventional fluid resuscitation group.

          Conclusion

          Featured with small infusion volume and less influence to coagulation function and homeostasis of human body, small-volume resuscitation possesses a significantly higher resuscitative effect. Therefore, trauma patients may have a better chance to maintain the hemodynamic stability and the survival rate, or recovery speed will be increased when traditional aggressive fluid resuscitation is replaced by small-volume resuscitation.

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          Most cited references 24

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          The next generation in shock resuscitation.

          Resuscitation of the severely injured patient who presents in shock has improved greatly, following focused wartime experience and insight from laboratory and clinical studies. Further benefit is probable from technologies that are being brought into clinical use, especially hypertonic saline dextran, haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, less invasive early monitors, and medical informatics. These technologies could improve the potential of prehospital and early hospital care to pre-empt or more rapidly reverse hypoxaemia, hypovolaemia, and onset of shock. Damage control surgery and definitive interventional radiology will probably combine with more real-time detection and intervention for hypothermia, coagulopathy, and acidosis, to avoid extreme pathophysiology and the "bloody vicious cycle". Although now widely practised as standard of care in the USA and Europe, shock resuscitation strategies involving haemoglobin replacement and fluid volume loading to regain tissue perfusion and oxygenation vary between trauma centres. One of the difficulties is the scarcity of published evidence for or against seemingly basic intervention strategies, such as early or large-volume fluid loading. Standardised protocols for resuscitation, representing the best and most current knowledge of the clinical process, could be devised and widely implemented as interactive computerised applications among trauma centres in the USA and Europe. Prevention of injury is preferable and feasible, but early care of the severely injured patient and modulation of exaggerated systemic inflammatory response due to transfusion and other complications of traditional strategies will probably provide the next generation of improvements in shock resuscitation.
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            Small-volume resuscitation: from experimental evidence to clinical routine. Advantages and disadvantages of hypertonic solutions.

            The concept of small-volume resuscitation (SVR) using hypertonic solutions encompasses the rapid infusion of a small dose (4 ml per kg body weight, i.e. approximately 250 ml in an adult patient) of 7.2-7.5% NaCl/colloid solution. Originally, SVR was aimed for initial therapy of severe hypovolemia and shock associated with trauma. The present review focuses on the findings concerning the working mechanisms responsible for the rapid onset of the circulatory effect, the impact of the colloid component on microcirculatory resuscitation, and describes the indications for its application in the preclinical scenario as well as perioperatively and in intensive care medicine. With respect to the actual data base of clinical trials SVR seems to be superior to conventional volume therapy with regard to faster normalization of microvascular perfusion during shock phases and early resumption of organ function. Particularly patients with head trauma in association with systemic hypotension appear to benefit. Besides, potential indications for this concept include cardiac and cardiovascular surgery (attenuation of reperfusion injury during declamping phase) and burn injury. The review also describes disadvantages and potential adverse effects of SVR: Small-volume resuscitation by means of hypertonic NaCl/colloid solutions stands for one of the most innovative concepts for primary resuscitation from trauma and shock established in the past decade. Today the spectrum of potential indications involves not only prehospital trauma care, but also perioperative and intensive care therapy.
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              Hypertonic saline and the microcirculation.

              The systemic inflammation that occurs in shock states is believed to promote overexuberant microcirculatory activation, the release of toxic proteases and oxygen radicals causing microvascular damage, and subsequent tissue and organ injury. Although shock-associated microvascular failure is often unresolved after standard resuscitation, hypertonic saline (HTS) appears to reduce microvascular collapse, restoring vital nutritional blood flow. In addition, hypertonic fluids tend to blunt the up-regulation of leukocyte and endothelial adhesion molecules that occurs with isotonic resuscitation of shock. Recently, direct evaluation by intravital microscopy has shown that HTS resuscitation dampens the interactions between leukocytes, platelets, and endothelium found with Ringer's lactate resuscitation. Furthermore, fewer cellular interactions have been correlated with attenuation in microvascular wall permeability after resuscitation with HTS. Better characterization of microcirculatory effects by hypertonic saline may provide mechanisms for improved morbidity and mortality associated with hypertonic resuscitation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2017
                27 March 2017
                : 13
                : 387-392
                Affiliations
                Department of Emergency, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Gang Zhao, Department of Emergency, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, No. 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, People’s Republic of China, Email 18931077631@ 123456163.com
                Article
                tcrm-13-387
                10.2147/TCRM.S132950
                5375637
                © 2017 Zhao et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                emergency, hemorrhage, shock, small-volume resuscitation

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