+1 Recommend
1 collections

      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on reporting of clinical studies, outcomes and safety in all therapeutic areas and surgical intervention areas. Sign up for email alerts here.

      34,006 Monthly downloads/views I 2.755 Impact Factor I 4.5 CiteScore I 1.0 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) I 0.598 Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR)

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Evaluation of the clinical effect of small-volume resuscitation on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          The objective of the present study was to explore the resuscitative effect of small-volume resuscitation on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency.


          In this study, the resuscitative effects in 200 trauma patients with uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency were studied. Half of these patients were infused with hypertonic/hyperoncotic fluid (small-volume resuscitation group, n=100), whereas the rest were infused with Hespan and lactated Ringer’s solution (conventional fluid resuscitation group, n=100). The changes in hemodynamics, coagulation function, blood biochemistry, blood hematology, and the average infusion volume in both the groups were comparatively studied.


          It was found that the hemodynamics were improved in both the groups after resuscitation. Interestingly, compared with trauma patients infused with Hespan and lactated Ringer’s solution, the growth rate, range, and time duration of the mean arterial pressure of the patients in small-volume resuscitation group increased significantly, and the shock index decreased progressively; in the 60th min after the resuscitation, blood index including hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelet declined, whereas prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in both the groups, but these changes were less obvious in the small-volume group. In addition, the average infusion volume of patients in the small-volume group was less than that of patients in conventional fluid resuscitation group.


          Featured with small infusion volume and less influence to coagulation function and homeostasis of human body, small-volume resuscitation possesses a significantly higher resuscitative effect. Therefore, trauma patients may have a better chance to maintain the hemodynamic stability and the survival rate, or recovery speed will be increased when traditional aggressive fluid resuscitation is replaced by small-volume resuscitation.

          Most cited references24

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The next generation in shock resuscitation.

          Resuscitation of the severely injured patient who presents in shock has improved greatly, following focused wartime experience and insight from laboratory and clinical studies. Further benefit is probable from technologies that are being brought into clinical use, especially hypertonic saline dextran, haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, less invasive early monitors, and medical informatics. These technologies could improve the potential of prehospital and early hospital care to pre-empt or more rapidly reverse hypoxaemia, hypovolaemia, and onset of shock. Damage control surgery and definitive interventional radiology will probably combine with more real-time detection and intervention for hypothermia, coagulopathy, and acidosis, to avoid extreme pathophysiology and the "bloody vicious cycle". Although now widely practised as standard of care in the USA and Europe, shock resuscitation strategies involving haemoglobin replacement and fluid volume loading to regain tissue perfusion and oxygenation vary between trauma centres. One of the difficulties is the scarcity of published evidence for or against seemingly basic intervention strategies, such as early or large-volume fluid loading. Standardised protocols for resuscitation, representing the best and most current knowledge of the clinical process, could be devised and widely implemented as interactive computerised applications among trauma centres in the USA and Europe. Prevention of injury is preferable and feasible, but early care of the severely injured patient and modulation of exaggerated systemic inflammatory response due to transfusion and other complications of traditional strategies will probably provide the next generation of improvements in shock resuscitation.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Small-volume resuscitation: from experimental evidence to clinical routine. Advantages and disadvantages of hypertonic solutions.

            The concept of small-volume resuscitation (SVR) using hypertonic solutions encompasses the rapid infusion of a small dose (4 ml per kg body weight, i.e. approximately 250 ml in an adult patient) of 7.2-7.5% NaCl/colloid solution. Originally, SVR was aimed for initial therapy of severe hypovolemia and shock associated with trauma. The present review focuses on the findings concerning the working mechanisms responsible for the rapid onset of the circulatory effect, the impact of the colloid component on microcirculatory resuscitation, and describes the indications for its application in the preclinical scenario as well as perioperatively and in intensive care medicine. With respect to the actual data base of clinical trials SVR seems to be superior to conventional volume therapy with regard to faster normalization of microvascular perfusion during shock phases and early resumption of organ function. Particularly patients with head trauma in association with systemic hypotension appear to benefit. Besides, potential indications for this concept include cardiac and cardiovascular surgery (attenuation of reperfusion injury during declamping phase) and burn injury. The review also describes disadvantages and potential adverse effects of SVR: Small-volume resuscitation by means of hypertonic NaCl/colloid solutions stands for one of the most innovative concepts for primary resuscitation from trauma and shock established in the past decade. Today the spectrum of potential indications involves not only prehospital trauma care, but also perioperative and intensive care therapy.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Effect of initial fluid resuscitation on subsequent treatment in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats.

              Using a modified uncontrolled hemorrhage shock model with massive splenic and vascular injury, we evaluated outcome and tissue oxidation injury with different resuscitation interventions during prehospital and hospital phases. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of initial fluid resuscitation on subsequent treatment of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats. Uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock was produced in 114 Wistar rat by sharp transection both of the splenic parenchyma at one location between the major branches of the splenic artery into the spleen and of one of the major branches of the splenic artery. Experimental design consisted of three phases: a "prehospital phase" (resuscitation with balanced saline to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40, 50, 60, 80, and 100 mmHg, respectively, when MAP reached 30 mmHg), followed by a "hospital phase" (120 min, including control of hemorrhage and resuscitation with balanced saline and whole blood (2:1) or balanced saline alone to a MAP >80 mmHg), and a 240-min observation phase. Blood loss, infused volume, hematocrit, and survival rate were recorded. At the end of the experiment, survivors were sacrificed, and the lung, kidney, and distal ileum were harvested for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC). All rats that were resuscitated to a MAP >80 mmHg in the prehospital phase and received balanced saline alone in the hospital phase died, whereas those that had been resuscitated to a MAP of 40 or 50 mmHg during the prehospital phase and then resuscitated with balanced saline and whole blood in the hospital phase survived throughout the experiment. The animals whose MAP was kept higher than 80 mmHg had significantly higher MDA content and lower T-AOC than those whose MAP was maintained 40, 50, or 60 mmHg during the prehospital phase. In the hospital phase, resuscitation with balanced saline and whole blood not only relieved tissue damage but also improved the survival, as indicated by 44.4% survival rate in the rats that resuscitated to a MAP of 80 or 100 mmHg in the prehospital phase. These results suggested that in our uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock model, limited resuscitation in the prehospital phase had benefit for subsequent treatment in the hospital phase in terms of alleviated tissue damage and improved survivorship.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                27 March 2017
                : 13
                : 387-392
                Department of Emergency, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Gang Zhao, Department of Emergency, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, No. 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, People’s Republic of China, Email 18931077631@ 123456163.com
                © 2017 Zhao et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                small-volume resuscitation,shock,hemorrhage,emergency
                small-volume resuscitation, shock, hemorrhage, emergency


                Comment on this article