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      Early Cretaceous sea surface temperature evolution in subtropical shallow seas

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      Scientific Reports
      Nature Publishing Group UK
      Geochemistry, Palaeoclimate

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          Abstract

          Late Cretaceous sea surface temperatures (SST) are, amongst others, traditionally reconstructed by compiling oxygen isotope records of planktonic foraminifera obtained from globally distributed pelagic IODP drill cores. In contrast, the evolution of Early Cretaceous SSTs is essentially based on the organic TEX 86 palaeothermometer, as oxygen-isotope data derived from well-preserved ‘glassy’ foraminifer calcite are currently lacking. In order to evaluate the extraordinary warm TEX 86-derived SSTs of the Barremian to Aptian (130–123 Ma) subtropics, we present highly resolved sclerochemical profiles of pristine rudist bivalve shells from Tethyan and proto-North Atlantic shallow water carbonate platforms. An inverse correlation of seasonal ontogenetic variations in δ 18O rudist and Mg/Ca ratios demonstrates the fidelity of oxygen isotopes as palaeotemperature proxy. The new data shows moderate mean annual SSTs (22–26 °C) for large parts of the Barremian and Aptian and transient warm pulses for the so-called Mid-Barremian Event and Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (reaching mean annual SSTs of 28 to 30 °C). A positive shift in mean annual oxygen-isotope values (δ 18O: ≤ − 0.3‰) coupled with invariant Mg/Ca ratios at the Barremian–Aptian boundary points to a significant net loss of 16O in Tethyan shallow-marine settings. As the positive oxygen-isotope rudist shell values are recorded immediately beneath a major superregional hiatal surface, they are interpreted to be related to a major cooling phase and potential glacio-eustatic sea-level lowering. Our new sclerochemical findings are in clear contrast to open ocean SST records based on TEX 86, which indicate exceptionally warm Barremian to earliest Aptian subtropical oceans and weak meridional SST gradients.

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          Most cited references76

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          REVISED CARBONATE-WATER ISOTOPIC TEMPERATURE SCALE

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            The thermodynamic properties of isotopic substances.

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              Distributional variations in marine crenarchaeotal membrane lipids: a new tool for reconstructing ancient sea water temperatures?

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                huck@geowi.uni-hannover.de
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                5 October 2021
                5 October 2021
                2021
                : 11
                : 19765
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.9122.8, ISNI 0000 0001 2163 2777, Institut für Geologie, , Leibniz Universität Hannover, ; Callinstraße 30, 30167 Hannover, Germany
                Article
                99094
                10.1038/s41598-021-99094-2
                8492702
                34611212
                1959aaf9-55f4-4f0a-90c7-8eb69f33d6ba
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 26 February 2021
                : 20 September 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover (1038)
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2021

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                geochemistry,palaeoclimate
                Uncategorized
                geochemistry, palaeoclimate

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