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      Sex differences in adolescents’ glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index breakfasts: a randomised control trial

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          Abstract

          During puberty young people undergo significant hormonal changes which affect metabolism and, subsequently, health. Evidence suggests there is a period of transient pubertal insulin resistance, with this effect greater in girls than boys. However, the response to everyday high and low glycaemic index (GI) meals remains unknown. Following ethical approval, forty adolescents consumed a high GI or low GI breakfast, in a randomised cross-over design. Capillary blood samples were taken during a 2-h postprandial period, examining the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Maturity offset and homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were also calculated. The glycaemic response to the breakfasts was similar between boys and girls, as shown by similar peak blood glucose concentrations and incremental AUC (IAUC) following both high and low GI breakfasts (all P>0·05). Girls exhibited a higher peak plasma insulin concentration 30 min post-breakfast following both high GI ( P=0·043, g=0·69) and low GI ( P=0·010, g=0·84) breakfasts, as well as a greater IAUC following high GI ( P=0·041, g=0·66) and low GI ( P=0·041, g=0·66) breakfasts. HOMA was positively correlated with the insulinaemic responses (all P<0·0005) and maturity offset ( P=0·037). The findings of the present study suggest that pubertal insulin resistance affects the postprandial insulinaemic responses to both high and low GI meals. Specifically, girls exhibit a greater insulinaemic response than boys to both meals, despite similar glycaemic responses. This study is the first to report the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to everyday meals in boys and girls, supporting the recommendation for young people to base their diet on low GI carbohydrates.

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          Most cited references 17

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          American Heart Association guidelines for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood.

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            Impaired insulin action in puberty. A contributing factor to poor glycemic control in adolescents with diabetes.

            Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus often have poor metabolic control during puberty. To determine whether puberty is associated with decreased insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, we compared the results of euglycemic insulin-clamp studies in adults and prepubertal and pubertal children with and without insulin-dependent diabetes. In nondiabetic pubertal children, insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism (201 +/- 12 mg per square meter of body surface area per minute) was sharply reduced, as compared with that of prepubertal children and adults (316 +/- 34 and 290 +/- 21 mg per square meter, respectively; P less than 0.01), despite comparable hyperinsulinemia (insulin levels of 80 to 90 microU per milliliter). Similarly, the response to insulin was 25 to 30 percent lower in the diabetic pubertal children than in the diabetic prepubertal children (P less than 0.05) and adults (P = 0.07). At each stage of development, the stimulating effect of insulin on glucose metabolism was decreased by 33 to 42 percent in the children with diabetes (P less than 0.01). In all the groups of children studied, the response to insulin was inversely correlated with mean 24-hour levels of growth hormone (r = -0.52, P = 0.01). Among the diabetic children, the glycosylated hemoglobin levels were substantially higher in the pubertal children than in the prepubertal children (P less than 0.02), although the daily insulin doses tended to be higher. These data suggest that insulin resistance occurs during puberty in both normal children and children with diabetes. The combined adverse effects of puberty and diabetes on insulin action may help explain why control of glycemia is so difficult to achieve in adolescent patients.
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              Longitudinal study of physiologic insulin resistance and metabolic changes of puberty.

              Cross-sectional studies have shown that 1) adolescents are insulin resistant compared with prepubertal children and adults, 2) pubertal insulin resistance is likely mediated by growth hormone (GH), and 3) pubertal insulin resistance is associated with increased fat oxidation and decreased glucose oxidation. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of these cross-sectional observations by performing a longitudinal study in normal children during the prepubertal and pubertal periods. Nine healthy, normal weight, prepubertal children underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp studies for evaluation of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Children had repeat evaluations during puberty. Consistent with cross-sectional observations, this longitudinal study demonstrated that during puberty: 1) insulin sensitivity decreased by approximately 50%, 2) the decrease in insulin sensitivity was compensated by a doubling in insulin secretion, and 3) the decrease in insulin sensitivity was independent of changes in percentage of body fat. Puberty was associated with increased total body lipolysis and decreased glucose oxidation. A novel observation is the demonstration of approximately 50% decrease in adiponectin levels at the pubertal time point. These metabolic changes are proposed to be partially mediated by increased GH secretion and are consistent with the Randle cycle of competition between glucose and fat oxidation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                British Journal of Nutrition
                Br J Nutr
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0007-1145
                1475-2662
                February 28 2017
                March 13 2017
                February 28 2017
                : 117
                : 4
                : 541-547
                Article
                10.1017/S0007114517000447
                © 2017

                https://www.cambridge.org/core/terms

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