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      The outcomes of carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography for percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty of access circuits and venous routes in hemodialysis patients

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          The outcomes of carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) for performing percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (balloon PTA) in hemodialysis patients has not been fully clarified. The purpose was to compare the outcomes of balloon PTA of hemodialysis shunts in terms of vessel patency between patients treated using CO2-DSA and conventional digital subtraction angiography using iodine contrast medium (C-DSA).

          We retrospectively evaluated 76 patients (38 males and 38 females, mean age: 65.0 ± 14.0 years). They were under hemodialysis and treated with balloon PTA using CO2-DSA or C-DSA at our institution between 2009 and 2016. Mean duration of the follow-up period was 25.59 ± 21.45 months. We compared the patency rates obtained after CO2-DSA-based balloon PTA with those after C-DSA-based balloon PTA. Secondary patency, which was defined as the duration of patency after all further endovascular interventions until surgical repair, was considered as the endpoint in this study.

          Overall, 19 and 57 patients underwent CO2-DSA- and C-DSA-based balloon PTA, respectively. CO2-DSA- and C-DSA-based balloon PTA produced clinical success rates of 100% and 96.5%, respectively. Blood vessel injury occurred in one patient who underwent C-DSA-based balloon PTA. No major complications occurred in CO2 group. At 24 months, the post-PTA secondary patency rates of CO2-DSA- and C-DSA-based balloon PTA were 94.1% and 93.9%, respectively ( P = .9594).

          CO2-DSA is safe for hemodialysis patients. Compared with C-DSA, CO2-DSA-based balloon PTA produces have a similar secondary patency rate.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Society of Interventional Radiology clinical practice guidelines.

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            Vascular access in haemodialysis: strengthening the Achilles' heel.

            Despite all the progress achieved since Scribner first introduced the arteriovenous (AV) shunt in 1960 and Cimino and Brescia introduced the native AV fistula in 1962, we have continued to face a conundrum in vascular access for dialysis, in that dialysis vascular access is at the same time both the 'lifeline' and the 'Achilles' heel' of haemodialysis. Indeed, findings from a multitude of published articles in this area, unfortunately mainly observational studies, reflect both our frustration and our limited knowledge in this area. Despite improved understanding of the pathophysiology of stenosis and thrombosis of the vascular access, we have unfortunately not been very successful in translating these advances into either improved therapies or a superior process of care. As a result, we continue to face an epidemic of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation failure, a proliferation of relatively ineffective interventions such as angioplasty and stent placement, an extremely high incidence of catheter use, and more doubts rather than guidance with regard to the role (or lack thereof) of surveillance. An important reason for these problems is the lack of focused translational research and robust randomized prospective studies in this area. In this Review, we will address some of these critical issues, with a special emphasis on identifying the best process of care pathways that could reduce morbidity and mortality. We also discuss the potential use of novel therapies to reduce dialysis vascular access dysfunction.
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              Carbon dioxide (CO2) digital subtraction angiography: 26-year experience at the University of Florida.

               I Hawkins,  J Caridi (1997)
              Although the vascular system is presently being imaged by multiple high technology modalities, contrast angiography continues to be the gold standard; however, severe complications rarely occur. During the last 25 years (in over 1400 patients), CO2 has proven to be extremely safe (no allergy or renal failure). However, it is imperative to understand CO2's physical properties and potential dangers. Recently, CO2 is being routinely utilized not only because of safety, but for detection of minute amounts of bleeding, better collateral filling, and for most interventional procedures since unlimited volumes of CO2 can be injected between the catheter and guidewire. Presently, safe, reliable and "user-friendly" delivery systems are now commercially available. CO2 DSA images are now nearly comparable to iodinated contrast, and improvement in DSA images are evolving, including "stacking" software.

                Author and article information

                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Hagerstown, MD )
                04 September 2020
                04 September 2020
                : 99
                : 36
                [a ]Department of Radiological Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
                [b ]Division of Blood Purification, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Eijun Sueyoshi, Department of Radiological Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan (e-mail: sueyo@ ).
                MD-D-19-08223 21890
                Copyright © 2020 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.

                Research Article
                Observational Study
                Custom metadata

                co2, dialysis, dsa, interventional radiology, pta


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