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      Calcimimetics versus Vitamin D: What Are Their Relative Roles?

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Calcimimetics, Calcium, Parathyroid hormone, Phosphorus, Renal osteodystrophy, Vitamin D analogs

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          Abstract

          A strict control of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is indicated to avoid serious complications linked to osteitis fibrosa and other parathyroid-hormone (PTH)-related bodily disturbances. However, such a control is often achieved only at the price of unacceptably high plasma calcium and phosphorus levels and the risk of soft tissue calcification, even when using the novel, so-called ‘non-hypercalcemic’ vitamin D analogs. The advent of a new class of drugs, the calcimimetics, should allow a more adequate control of the disturbed calcium-phosphorus metabolism in CKD patients. In my opinion, the calcimimetics will not replace currently used medications but will be a valuable supplement to presently available treatment options for this major complication in patients with renal failure.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Survival of patients undergoing hemodialysis with paricalcitol or calcitriol therapy.

          Elevated calcium and phosphorus levels after therapy with injectable vitamin D for secondary hyperparathyroidism may accelerate vascular disease and hasten death in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Paricalcitol, a new vitamin D analogue, appears to lessen the elevations in serum calcium and phosphorus levels, as compared with calcitriol, the standard form of injectable vitamin D. We conducted a historical cohort study to compare the 36-month survival rate among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis who started to receive treatment with paricalcitol (29,021 patients) or calcitriol (38,378 patients) between 1999 and 2001. Crude and adjusted survival rates were calculated and stratified analyses were performed. A subgroup of 16,483 patients who switched regimens was also evaluated. The mortality rate among patients receiving paricalcitol was 3417 per 19,031 person-years (0.180 per person-year), as compared with 6805 per 30,471 person-years (0.223 per person-year) among those receiving calcitriol (P<0.001). The difference in survival was significant at 12 months and increased with time (P<0.001). In the adjusted analysis, the mortality rate was 16 percent lower (95 percent confidence interval, 10 to 21 percent) among paricalcitol-treated patients than among calcitriol-treated patients. A significant survival benefit was evident in 28 of 42 strata examined, and in no stratum was calcitriol favored. At 12 months, calcium and phosphorus levels had increased by 6.7 and 11.9 percent, respectively, in the paricalcitol group, as compared with 8.2 and 13.9 percent, respectively, in the calcitriol group (P<0.001). The two-year survival rate among patients who switched from calcitriol to paricalcitol was 73 percent, as compared with 64 percent among those who switched from paricalcitol to calcitriol (P=0.04). Patients who receive paricalcitol while undergoing long-term hemodialysis appear to have a significant survival advantage over those who receive calcitriol. A prospective, randomized study is critical to confirm these findings. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Modulation of growth factor/cytokine synthesis and signaling by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3): implications in cell growth and differentiation.

            Distinct from its classic functions in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism as a systemic hormone, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] is involved in the local control and regulation of cellular growth and differentiation in various tissues, including epidermis (keratinocytes) and bone (osteoblasts and osteoclasts). In this review, the impact of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on growth factor/cytokine synthesis and signaling is discussed, particularly as it pertains to bone cells and keratinocytes. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) not only regulates growth factor/cytokine synthesis but may also alter growth factor signaling. Recently discovered examples for such interactions are the interactions between the vitamin D receptor and the mothers against decapentaplegic-related proteins that function downstream of TGFbeta receptors. Inhibitory effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on keratinocytes through TGFbeta activation and IL-1alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 suppression may provide a rationale for its beneficial effects in the treatment of hyperproliferative skin disorders, whereas stimulatory effects through the epidermal growth factor-related family members and platelet-derived growth factor may be operative in its beneficial effects in skin atrophy and wound healing. Modulation of cytokines and growth factors by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) during bone remodeling plays an important role in the coupling of osteoblastic bone formation with osteoclastic resorption to maintain bone mass.
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              NPS R-568 halts or reverses osteitis fibrosa in uremic rats.

              Osteitis fibrosa is a common bone injury associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism (2(o)HPT). NPS R-568 is a phenylalkylamine derivative that acts as an agonist at the cell-surface Ca2+ receptor ("calcimimetic") and inhibits parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. In the present study, we tested whether NPS R-568 could ameliorate osteitis fibrosa in partially nephrectomized (Nx) rats with 2(o)HPT. Six months after surgery, Nx rats had developed mild but progressive 2(o)HPT and osteitis fibrosa. Two groups of Nx rats received NPS R-568 (3 and 30 mg/kg body wt x day) by daily gavage for 30 days, which led to a dose-related decrease in serum PTH levels and to a marked reduction in peritrabecular fibrosis (0.96 +/- 0.49% to < 0.1%). Furthermore, 2(o)HPT was associated with decreases in volumetric cortical bone mineral density (vCtBMD) and in cortical bone stiffness at the femoral midshaft. NPS R-568 significantly restored the deficits in vCtBMD and stiffness. These results indicate that NPS R-568 has beneficial effects on bones with osteitis fibrosa by normalizing serum PTH levels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7683-3
                978-3-318-01049-7
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2004
                July 2004
                20 January 2004
                : 22
                : 1
                : 38-43
                Affiliations
                INSERM Unit 507 and Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Necker, Paris, France
                Article
                74922 Blood Purif 2004;22:38–43
                10.1159/000074922
                14732810
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 29, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/74922
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