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      Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq.) grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture

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          Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time.

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          Árvores brasileiras: manual de identificação e cultivo de plantas arbóreas nativas do Brasil

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            Árvores brasileiras: manual de identificação e cultivo de plantas arbóreas nativas do Brasil

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              The challenges of antimicrobial resistance in Brazil.

               Flavia Rossi (2011)
              Brazil is a country with continental proportions with high geographic and economic diversity. Despite its medical centers of excellence, antimicrobial resistance poses a major therapeutic challenge. Rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are up to 60% and are related to an endemic Brazilian clone. Local resistance to vancomycin in Enterococci was first related to Enterococcus faecalis, which differs from European and American epidemiology. Also, local Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases have a much higher prevalence (40%-50% and 10%-18%, respectively). Carbapenem resistance among the enterobacteriaceae group is becoming a major problem, and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase isolates have been reported in different states. Among nonfermenters, carbapenem resistance is strongly related to SPM-1 (Pseudomonasaeruginosa) and OXA-23 (Acinetobacter baumannii complex) enzymes, and a colistin-only susceptible phenotype has also emerged in these isolates, which is worrisome. Local actions without loosing the global resistance perspective will demand multidisciplinary actions, new policies, and political engagement.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Maracanã, RJ, Brazil.
                [2 ]Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
                Author notes
                Send correspondence to N. Albarello. Laboratório de Biotecnologia de Plantas, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, São Francisco Xavier 524, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. E-mail: labplan_uerj@ .

                Associate Editor: Nilton Erbet Lincopan Huenuman

                Braz J Microbiol
                Braz. J. Microbiol
                Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
                Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
                01 July 2015
                Jul-Sep 2015
                : 46
                : 3
                : 785-789
                Copyright © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia

                All the content of the journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons License CC BY-NC.

                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 5
                Medical Microbiology


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