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Rapid amplification of four retrotransposon families promoted speciation and genome size expansion in the genus Panax

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      Abstract

      Genome duplication and repeat multiplication contribute to genome evolution in plants. Our previous work identified a recent allotetraploidization event and five high-copy LTR retrotransposon (LTR-RT) families PgDel, PgTat, PgAthila, PgTork, and PgOryco in Panax ginseng. Here, using whole-genome sequences, we quantified major repeats in five Panax species and investigated their role in genome evolution. The diploids P. japonicus, P. vietnamensis, and P. notoginseng and the tetraploids P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were analyzed alongside their relative Aralia elata. These species possess 0.8–4.9 Gb haploid genomes. The PgDel, PgTat, PgAthila, and PgTork LTR-RT superfamilies accounted for 39–52% of the Panax species genomes and 17% of the A. elata genome. PgDel included six subfamily members, each with a distinct genome distribution. In particular, the PgDel1 subfamily occupied 23–35% of the Panax genomes and accounted for much of their genome size variation. PgDel1 occupied 22.6% (0.8 Gb of 3.6 Gb) and 34.5% (1.7 Gb of 4.9 Gb) of the P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius genomes, respectively. Our findings indicate that the P. quinquefolius genome may have expanded due to rapid PgDel1 amplification over the last million years as a result of environmental adaptation following migration from Asia to North America.

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      Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data

      Motivation: Although many next-generation sequencing (NGS) read preprocessing tools already existed, we could not find any tool or combination of tools that met our requirements in terms of flexibility, correct handling of paired-end data and high performance. We have developed Trimmomatic as a more flexible and efficient preprocessing tool, which could correctly handle paired-end data. Results: The value of NGS read preprocessing is demonstrated for both reference-based and reference-free tasks. Trimmomatic is shown to produce output that is at least competitive with, and in many cases superior to, that produced by other tools, in all scenarios tested. Availability and implementation: Trimmomatic is licensed under GPL V3. It is cross-platform (Java 1.5+ required) and available at http://www.usadellab.org/cms/index.php?page=trimmomatic Contact: usadel@bio1.rwth-aachen.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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        DNA transposons and the evolution of eukaryotic genomes.

        Transposable elements are mobile genetic units that exhibit broad diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Transposable elements occupy a large fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and their movement and accumulation represent a major force shaping the genes and genomes of almost all organisms. This review focuses on DNA-mediated or class 2 transposons and emphasizes how this class of elements is distinguished from other types of mobile elements in terms of their structure, amplification dynamics, and genomic effect. We provide an up-to-date outlook on the diversity and taxonomic distribution of all major types of DNA transposons in eukaryotes, including Helitrons and Mavericks. We discuss some of the evolutionary forces that influence their maintenance and diversification in various genomic environments. Finally, we highlight how the distinctive biological features of DNA transposons have contributed to shape genome architecture and led to the emergence of genetic innovations in different eukaryotic lineages.
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          The paleontology of intergene retrotransposons of maize.

          Retrotransposons, transposable elements related to animal retroviruses, are found in all eukaryotes investigated and make up the majority of many plant genomes. Their ubiquity points to their importance, especially in their contribution to the large-scale structure of complex genomes. The nature and frequency of retro-element appearance, activation and amplification are poorly understood in all higher eukaryotes. Here we employ a novel approach to determine the insertion dates for 17 of 23 retrotransposons found near the maize adh1 gene, and two others from unlinked sites in the maize genome, by comparison of long terminal repeat (LTR) divergences with the sequence divergence between adh1 in maize and sorghum. All retrotransposons examined have inserted within the last six million years, most in the last three million years. The structure of the adh1 region appears to be standard relative to the other gene-containing regions of the maize genome, thus suggesting that retrotransposon insertions have increased the size of the maize genome from approximately 1200 Mb to 2400 Mb in the last three million years. Furthermore, the results indicate an increased mutation rate in retrotransposons compared with genes.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, GRID grid.31501.36, Department of Plant Science, , Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, ; Seoul, 08826 Republic of Korea
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0742 3338, GRID grid.418964.6, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, , Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, ; Jeongeup, 56212 Republic of Korea
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1302 4958, GRID grid.55614.33, , Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 107 Science Place, ; Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X2 Canada
            [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9546 5767, GRID grid.20561.30, Institution of Genomics and Bioinformatics, , South China Agricultural University, ; Guangzhou, 510642 China
            [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, GRID grid.31501.36, Crop Biotechnology Institute/GreenBio Science and Technology, , Seoul National University, ; Pyeongchang, 25354 Republic of Korea
            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9676-8801, tjyang@snu.ac.kr
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            22 August 2017
            22 August 2017
            2017
            : 7
            28831052 5567358 8194 10.1038/s41598-017-08194-5
            © The Author(s) 2017

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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