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      Household food insecurity, diabetes and hypertension among Mexican adults: Results from Ensanut 2012 Translated title: Inseguridad alimentaria en el hogar, diabetes e hipertensión en adultos mexicanos: resultados de Ensanut 2012

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          Abstract

          Objective. To examine the independent association of household food insecurity (HFI) with diabetes and hypertension in a nationally representative cross-sectional sample from Mexico. Materials and methods. We assessed the association between HFI and self-reported doctor diagnosed diabetes and hypertension among 32 320 adult individuals using multiple logistic regression. HFI was measured using an adapted version for Mexico of the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA). Results. HFI was a risk factor for diabetes among women but not men and for hypertension among both genders. Diabetes odds were higher by 31, 67 and 48%, among women living in mild, moderate, and severe food-insecure (vs. food-secure) households, respectively. Living in moderate to severe food-insecure (vs. food-secure) households was associated with hypertension odds that were 28 and 32% higher, respectively. Conclusion. Decreasing HFI may help improve public health and national development in Mexico.

          Translated abstract

          Objetivo. Examinar la asociación independiente entre la inseguridad alimentaria en el hogar (IAH) y la diabetes e hipertensión en una encuesta transversal nacionalmente representativa de México. Material y métodos. Se evaluó la asociación entre IAH y el autorreporte por un médico de diagnosis de diabetes o hipertensión en 32320 adultos utilizando regresión logística múltiple. La IAH se midió con la Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria (ELCSA). Resultados. La IAH fue un factor de riesgo para diabetes en mujeres, pero no en hombres, y para la hipertensión en ambos géneros. Comparado con hogares con seguridad alimentaria, los momios de diabetes fueron 31, 67, y 48% más altos entre mujeres viviendo en hogares con inseguridad alimentaria leve, moderada y grave, respectivamente. La IAH moderada y grave se asoció con momios de hipertensión 28 y 32% más altos. Conclusión. Disminuir la IAH puede mejorar la salud pública y el desarrollo nacional de México.

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          Food insecurity is associated with chronic disease among low-income NHANES participants.

          Food insecurity refers to the inability to afford enough food for an active, healthy life. Numerous studies have shown associations between food insecurity and adverse health outcomes among children. Studies of the health effects of food insecurity among adults are more limited and generally focus on the association between food insecurity and self-reported disease. We therefore examined the association between food insecurity and clinical evidence of diet-sensitive chronic disease, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. Our population-based sample included 5094 poor adults aged 18-65 y participating in the NHANES (1999-2004 waves). We estimated the association between food insecurity (assessed by the Food Security Survey Module) and self-reported or laboratory/examination evidence of diet-sensitive chronic disease using Poisson regression. We adjusted the models to account for differences in age, gender, race, educational attainment, and income. Food insecurity was associated with self-reported hypertension [adjusted relative risk (ARR) 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.38] and hyperlipidemia (ARR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.55), but not diabetes (ARR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89-1.58). Food insecurity was associated with laboratory or examination evidence of hypertension (ARR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.41) and diabetes (ARR 1.48; 95% CI, 0.94-2.32). The association with laboratory evidence of diabetes did not reach significance in the fully adjusted model unless we used a stricter definition of food insecurity (ARR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.44-4.08). These data show that food insecurity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Health policy discussions should focus increased attention on ability to afford high-quality foods for adults with or at risk for chronic disease.
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            Socioeconomic status and health: how education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

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              Socioeconomic status and health: how education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

              Socioeconomic status (SES) is usually measured by determining education, income, occupation, or a composite of these dimensions. Although education is the most commonly used measure of SES in epidemiological studies, no investigators in the United States have conducted an empirical analysis quantifying the relative impact of each separate dimension of SES on risk factors for disease. Using data on 2380 participants from the Stanford Five-City Project (85% White, non-Hispanic), we examined the independent contribution of education, income, and occupation to a set of cardiovascular disease risk factors (cigarette smoking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). The relationship between these SES measures and risk factors was strongest and most consistent for education, showing higher risk associated with lower levels of education. Using a forward selection model that allowed for inclusion of all three SES measures after adjustment for age and time of survey, education was the only measure that was significantly associated with the risk factors (P less than .05). If economics or time dictate that a single parameter of SES be chosen and if the research hypothesis does not dictate otherwise, higher education may be the best SES predictor of good health.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Yale School of Public Health Estados Unidos de América
                [2 ] Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública México
                [3 ] Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas A.C. México
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                spm
                Salud Pública de México
                Salud pública Méx
                Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (Cuernavaca )
                0036-3634
                2014
                : 56
                : suppl 1
                : s62-s70
                S0036-36342014000700010

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Mexico
                Categories
                Health Policy & Services

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