Blog
About

11
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation

      1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 1 , 2

      Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

      Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

      Wiley

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are electronic devices that heat a liquid into an aerosol for inhalation. The liquid usually comprises propylene glycol and glycerol, with or without nicotine and flavours, and stored in disposable or refillable cartridges or a reservoir. Since ECs appeared on the market in 2006 there has been a steady growth in sales. Smokers report using ECs to reduce risks of smoking, but some healthcare organizations, tobacco control advocacy groups and policy makers have been reluctant to encourage smokers to switch to ECs, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. Smokers, healthcare providers and regulators are interested to know if these devices can help smokers quit and if they are safe to use for this purpose. This review is an update of a review first published in 2014.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 134

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Outcome criteria in smoking cessation trials: proposal for a common standard.

            Smoking cessation treatment is now integrated into many health-care systems and a major research effort is under way to improve current success rates. Until now results from randomized clinical trials have been reported in many different ways, leading to problems of interpretation. We propose six standard criteria comprising the 'Russell Standard' (RS). These criteria are applicable to trials of cessation aids where participants have a defined target quit date and there is face-to-face contact with researchers or clinic staff, as follows. (1) Follow-up for 6 months (RS6) or 12 months (RS12) from the target quit date or the end of a predefined 'grace period'; (2) self-report of smoking abstinence over the whole follow-up period allowing up to five cigarettes in total; (3) biochemical verification of abstinence at least at the 6-month or 12-month follow-up point; (4) use of an 'intention-to-treat' approach in which data from all randomized smokers are included in the analysis unless they have died or moved to an untraceable address (participants who are included in the analysis are counted as smokers if their smoking status at the final follow-up cannot be determined); (5) following-up 'protocol violators' and using their true smoking status in the analysis; and (6) collecting follow-up data blind to smokers' allocation to trial group. We believe that these criteria provide the best compromise between practicability and surrogacy for long-term cessation and will enable meaningful comparison between studies. There may be good reasons why other outcome criteria would also be reported, and studies that involve interventions with special groups or where there is no designated target quit date or face to face contact would need to adapt these criteria accordingly.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial.

              Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit. We did this pragmatic randomised-controlled superiority trial in Auckland, New Zealand, between Sept 6, 2011, and July 5, 2013. Adult (≥18 years) smokers wanting to quit were randomised (with computerised block randomisation, block size nine, stratified by ethnicity [Māori; Pacific; or non-Māori, non-Pacific], sex [men or women], and level of nicotine dependence [>5 or ≤5 Fagerström test for nicotine dependence]) in a 4:4:1 ratio to 16 mg nicotine e-cigarettes, nicotine patches (21 mg patch, one daily), or placebo e-cigarettes (no nicotine), from 1 week before until 12 weeks after quit day, with low intensity behavioural support via voluntary telephone counselling. The primary outcome was biochemically verified continuous abstinence at 6 months (exhaled breath carbon monoxide measurement <10 ppm). Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12610000866000. 657 people were randomised (289 to nicotine e-cigarettes, 295 to patches, and 73 to placebo e-cigarettes) and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At 6 months, verified abstinence was 7·3% (21 of 289) with nicotine e-cigarettes, 5·8% (17 of 295) with patches, and 4·1% (three of 73) with placebo e-cigarettes (risk difference for nicotine e-cigarette vs patches 1·51 [95% CI -2·49 to 5·51]; for nicotine e-cigarettes vs placebo e-cigarettes 3·16 [95% CI -2·29 to 8·61]). Achievement of abstinence was substantially lower than we anticipated for the power calculation, thus we had insufficient statistical power to conclude superiority of nicotine e-cigarettes to patches or to placebo e-cigarettes. We identified no significant differences in adverse events, with 137 events in the nicotine e-cigarettes group, 119 events in the patches group, and 36 events in the placebo e-cigarettes group. We noted no evidence of an association between adverse events and study product. E-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, were modestly effective at helping smokers to quit, with similar achievement of abstinence as with nicotine patches, and few adverse events. Uncertainty exists about the place of e-cigarettes in tobacco control, and more research is urgently needed to clearly establish their overall benefits and harms at both individual and population levels. Health Research Council of New Zealand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
                Wiley
                14651858
                September 13 2016
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Oxford; Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences; Radcliffe Observatory Quarter Woodstock Road Oxford UK OX2 6GG
                [2 ]Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London; Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine; 55 Philpot Street Whitechapel London UK E1 2HJ
                [3 ]University of Auckland; National Institute for Health Innovation; Private Bag 92019 Auckland Mail Centre Auckland New Zealand 1142
                10.1002/14651858.CD010216.pub3
                27622384
                © 2016
                Product

                Comments

                Comment on this article