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      Evaluation of risk factors of vaginal cuff dehiscence after hysterectomy

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          Abstract

          Objective

          The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors of vaginal cuff dehiscence or evisceration according to the type of operation.

          Methods

          Medical records of 604 women who underwent hysterectomies at Korea University Anam Hospital between June 2007 and June 2011 were reviewed. They were allocated to six groups. The six types of hysterectomies included robotic hysterectomy (n = 7), robotic radical hysterectomy and node dissection (RRHND, n = 9), total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH, n = 274), laparoscopy assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH, n = 238), laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and node dissection (n = 11), and abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH, n = 63). The characteristics and outcomes of each groups were compared.

          Results

          There was no difference in the characteristics of patients between 6 groups. In total of 604 hysterectomies, 3 evisceration (0.49%) and 21 dehiscences (3.47%) occurred. Evisceration were found in RRHND (1/9, 11.1%), TLH (1/276, 0.36%), and ARH (1/63, 1.56%). Dehiscences occurred in TLH (15/274, 5.42%), LAVH (4/238, 1.68%), and ARH (2/63, 3.17%). In 169 cases of TLH with intra-corporeal continuous suture, 1 evisceration and 4 dehiscences occurred, whereas 11 dehiscences occurred in 105 TLH cases with vaginal continuous locking suture (2.96% vs. 10.47%, P = 0.02).

          Conclusion

          The incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscenceand eviscerationwas significantly higher in TLH than LAVH. The intra-corporeal cuff suture was superior to the vaginal suture to prevent the vaginal cuff complications in TLH.

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          Most cited references19

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          Incidence and patient characteristics of vaginal cuff dehiscence after different modes of hysterectomies.

          The purposes of this study were to estimate and compare the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence after different modes of hysterectomies (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic-assisted vaginal and laparoscopic) and to review the characteristics of hysterectomies complicated by vaginal dehiscences. Observational case series (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Large, urban, university teaching hospital. All patients undergoing a total hysterectomy or vaginal dehiscence repair at Magee-Womens Hospital (MWH) from January 2000 through March 2006 were analyzed. Vaginal repair of vaginal cuff separation with reduction of eviscerating organ when appropriate. From January 2000 through March 2006, 7286 hysterectomies (7039 total and 247 supracervical) were performed at MWH by abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic-assisted vaginal, or laparoscopic approach. Ten of these hysterectomies were complicated by vaginal cuff dehiscences and were repaired during this time period. The resulting overall cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence after total hysterectomy at MWH was 0.14%. The annual cumulative incidence of vaginal dehiscences after total hysterectomy was 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 0.09%, 0.70%, and 0.31% from January 2000 to March 2006, respectively. There was a notable increase in the cumulative incidence of dehiscence in 2005 and thereafter. From January 2005 through March 2006, the cumulative incidence of vaginal dehiscence by mode of hysterectomy was 4.93% among total laparoscopic hysterectomies (TLH), 0.29% among total vaginal hysterectomies (TVH), and 0.12% among total abdominal hysterectomies (TAH). The relative risks of a vaginal cuff dehiscence complication after TLH compared with TVH and TAH were 21.0 and 53.2, respectively. Both were statistically significant, with 95% CIs of 2.6 to 166.9 and 6.7 to 423.4, respectively. Among the 10 dehiscences repaired, 8 (80%) were complications of TLHs, 1 (10%) was associated with TAH, and 1 (10%) followed a TVH. The median age at time of dehiscence was 39 years, and the median time between initial hysterectomy to vaginal dehiscence was 11 weeks. Six of the 10 patients presented with both cuff dehiscence and bowel evisceration. Six patients reported first postoperative intercourse as the trigger event. Half the patients with dehiscence report smoking cigarettes. All patients with dehiscence received preoperative prophylactic antibiotics at the time of hysterectomy. Until October 2006, there have been no reported recurrent dehiscences at MWH. Total laparoscopic hysterectomies may be associated with an increased risk of vaginal cuff dehiscence compared with other modes of total hysterectomy. We postulate that the use of thermal energy in addition to other factors unique to laparoscopic surgery may be responsible; however, prospective randomized trials are needed to support this hypothesis. When performing laparoscopic hysterectomies, a supracervical approach should be considered unless a clear indication for a TLH is present.
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            Characteristics of patients with vaginal rupture and evisceration.

            To characterize vaginal rupture and evisceration. We reviewed medical records (1970-2001) for use of the diagnostic terms "vaginal rupture," "vaginal evisceration," and "ruptured enterocele." Twelve clinical cases were identified. Patients usually presented with pain, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pressure. In 9 of 12 women, rupture was primarily associated with postmenopausal prolapse and a history of pelvic surgery. Women with a history of abdominal hysterectomy tended to rupture through the vaginal cuff, and those with a history of vaginal hysterectomy tended to rupture through a posterior enterocele. Premenopausal rupture in 1 woman occurred postcoitally and involved the posterior fornix. Prolapse recurrence after repair was limited to 1 woman. Vaginal rupture and evisceration should be considered in women presenting with acute vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. Evaluation is especially important in postmenopausal women with a history of pelvic surgery. In some cases, surveillance after pelvic surgery may prevent rupture, evisceration, and incarceration. II-3
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              Vaginal cuff closure after minimally invasive hysterectomy: our experience and systematic review of the literature.

              To determine the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence after minimally invasive hysterectomy, we reported our series of total laparoscopic hysterectomies with transvaginal colporraphy. We then conducted a systematic search of PubMed to retrieve published series of laparoscopic and robotic hysterectomies, in which different techniques for vaginal cuff closure were used. In our study group, vaginal cuff dehiscence occurred in 2 of 665 (0.3%) patients. Our literature search identified 57 articles, for a total of 13,030 endoscopic hysterectomies. Ninety-one postoperative vaginal separations were reported (0.66%). The pooled incidence of vaginal dehiscence was lower for transvaginal cuff closure (0.18%) than for both laparoscopic (0.64%; odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.65) and robotic (1.64%; OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.26) colporraphy. Laparoscopic cuff closure was associated with a lower risk of dehiscence than robotic closure (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.28-0.6). Current evidence indicates that transvaginal colporraphy after total laparoscopic hysterectomy is associated with a 3- and 9-fold reduction in risk of vaginal cuff dehiscence compared with laparoscopic and robotic suture, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Obstet Gynecol Sci
                Obstet Gynecol Sci
                OGS
                Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
                Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Korean Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health; Korean Society of Gynecologic Endocrinology; Korean Society of Gynecologic Endoscopy and Minimal Invasive Surgery; Korean Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine; Korean Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology; Korean Urogynecologic Society
                2287-8572
                2287-8580
                March 2014
                15 March 2014
                : 57
                : 2
                : 136-143
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Korea University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
                [3 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
                [4 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jae Yun Song. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea University Anam Hospital, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705, Korea. Tel: +82-2-920-6775, Fax: +82-2-921-5357, sjyuni105@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.5468/ogs.2014.57.2.136
                3965697
                24678487
                19aca03d-a0c1-4659-865f-7da00380fc04
                Copyright © 2014 Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology

                Articles published in Obstet Gynecol Sci are open-access, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 25 April 2013
                : 26 September 2013
                : 20 October 2013
                Categories
                Original Article
                General Gynecology

                complications,hysterectomy,surgical wound dehiscence,suture techniques

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