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The Link Between Mental Health and Obesity: Role of Individual and Contextual Factors

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      Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation.

      Overweight and obesity represent a rapidly growing threat to the health of populations in an increasing number of countries. Indeed they are now so common that they are replacing more traditional problems such as undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant causes of ill-health. Obesity comorbidities include coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, certain types of cancer, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease, dyslipidaemia, osteoarthritis and gout, and pulmonary diseases, including sleep apnoea. In addition, the obese suffer from social bias, prejudice and discrimination, on the part not only of the general public but also of health professionals, and this may make them reluctant to seek medical assistance. WHO therefore convened a Consultation on obesity to review current epidemiological information, contributing factors and associated consequences, and this report presents its conclusions and recommendations. In particular, the Consultation considered the system for classifying overweight and obesity based on the body mass index, and concluded that a coherent system is now available and should be adopted internationally. The Consultation also concluded that the fundamental causes of the obesity epidemic are sedentary lifestyles and high-fat energy-dense diets, both resulting from the profound changes taking place in society and the behavioural patterns of communities as a consequence of increased urbanization and industrialization and the disappearance of traditional lifestyles. A reduction in fat intake to around 20-25% of energy is necessary to minimize energy imbalance and weight gain in sedentary individuals. While there is strong evidence that certain genes have an influence on body mass and body fat, most do not qualify as necessary genes, i.e. genes that cause obesity whenever two copies of the defective allele are present; it is likely to be many years before the results of genetic research can be applied to the problem. Methods for the treatment of obesity are described, including dietary management, physical activity and exercise, and antiobesity drugs, with gastrointestinal surgery being reserved for extreme cases.
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        Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

        Association between obesity and depression has repeatedly been established. For treatment and prevention purposes, it is important to acquire more insight into their longitudinal interaction. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the longitudinal relationship between depression, overweight, and obesity and to identify possible influencing factors. Studies were found using PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases and selected on several criteria. Studies examining the longitudinal bidirectional relation between depression and overweight (body mass index 25-29.99) or obesity (body mass index > or =30) were selected. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were extracted or provided by the authors. Overall, unadjusted ORs were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed for the 15 included studies (N = 58 745) to estimate the effect of possible moderators (sex, age, depression severity). Obesity at baseline increased the risk of onset of depression at follow-up (unadjusted OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.98; P or =60 years) but not among younger persons (aged <20 years). Baseline depression (symptoms and disorder) was not predictive of overweight over time. However, depression increased the odds for developing obesity (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.33-1.87; P < .001). Subgroup analyses did not reveal specific moderators of the association. This meta-analysis confirms a reciprocal link between depression and obesity. Obesity was found to increase the risk of depression, most pronounced among Americans and for clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, depression was found to be predictive of developing obesity.
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          Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity.

          Obesity has become a global epidemic but our understanding of the problem in children is limited due to lack of comparable representative data from different countries, and varying criteria for defining obesity. This paper summarises the available information on recent trends in child overweight and obesity prevalence. PubMed was searched for data relating to trends over time, in papers published between January 1980 and October 2005. Additional studies identified by citations in retrieved papers and by consultation with experts were included. Data for trends over time were found for school-age populations in 25 countries and for pre-school populations in 42 countries. Using these reports, and data collected for the World Health Organization's Burden of Disease Program, we estimated the global prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-age children for 2006 and likely prevalence levels for 2010. The prevalence of childhood overweight has increased in almost all countries for which data are available. Exceptions are found among school-age children in Russia and to some extent Poland during the 1990s. Exceptions are also found among infant and pre-school children in some lower-income countries. Obesity and overweight has increased more dramatically in economically developed countries and in urbanized populations. There is a growing global childhood obesity epidemic, with a large variation in secular trends across countries. Effective programs and policies are needed at global, regional and national levels to limit the problem among children.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Center for Research on Ethnicity, Culture and Health (CRECH), School of Public Health, University of Michigan, USA
            [2 ]Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
            Author notes
            Correspondence to: Dr. Shervin Assari, Center for Research on Ethnicity, Culture and Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2029, USA. E-mail: assari@ 123456umich.edu
            Journal
            Int J Prev Med
            Int J Prev Med
            IJPVM
            International Journal of Preventive Medicine
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            2008-7802
            2008-8213
            March 2014
            : 5
            : 3
            : 247-249
            4018631
            IJPVM-5-247
            Copyright: © International Journal of Preventive Medicine

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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