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      Medication Nonadherence and Subsequent Risk of Hospitalisation and Mortality among Older Adults :

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          Comprehensive clinical assessment in community setting: applicability of the MDS-HC.

          To describe the results of an international trial of the home care version of the MDS assessment and problem identification system (the MDS-HC), including reliability estimates, a comparison of MDS-HC reliabilities with reliabilities of the same items in the MDS 2.0 nursing home assessment instrument, and an examination of the types of problems found in home care clients using the MDS-HC. Independent, dual assessment of clients of home-care agencies by trained clinicians using a draft of the MDS-HC, with additional descriptive data regarding problem profiles for home care clients. Reliability data from dual assessments of 241 randomly selected clients of home care agencies in five countries, all of whom volunteered to test the MDS-HC. Also included are an expanded sample of 780 home care assessments from these countries and 187 dually assessed residents from 21 nursing homes in the United States. The array of MDS-HC assessment items included measures in the following areas: personal items, cognitive patterns, communication/hearing, vision, mood and behavior, social functioning, informal support services, physical functioning, continence, disease diagnoses health conditions and preventive health measures, nutrition/hydration, dental status, skin condition, environmental assessment, service utilization, and medications. Forty-seven percent of the functional, health status, social environment, and service items in the MDS-HC were taken from the MDS 2.0 for nursing homes. For this item set, it is estimated that the average weighted Kappa is .74 for the MDS-HC and .75 for the MDS 2.0. Similarly, high reliability values were found for items newly introduced in the MDS-HC (weighted Kappa = .70). Descriptive findings also characterize the problems of home care clients, with subanalyses within cognitive performance levels. Findings indicate that the core set of items in the MDS 2.0 work equally well in community and nursing home settings. New items are highly reliable. In tandem, these instruments can be used within the international community, assisting and planning care for older adults within a broad spectrum of service settings, including nursing homes and home care programs. With this community-based, second-generation problem and care plan-driven assessment instrument, disability assessment can be performed consistently across the world.
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            Validation of the Minimum Data Set Cognitive Performance Scale: agreement with the Mini-Mental State Examination.

            Almost all nursing homes in the United States are required by the 1987 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act to assess each resident's functional, medical, psychosocial, and cognitive status using a standard instrument known as the Minimum Data Set (MDS). We report a validation study to show that the MDS Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS), a cognitive measure generated from 5 MDS items (comatose status, decision making, short-term memory, making self understood, and eating) can be used to detect cognitive impairment as defined by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Two hundred subjects were randomly recruited from 8 nursing home facilities in North Carolina. Two medical students administered the MMSE, while a geriatric research nurse was responsible for collecting MDS cognitive items, which included the 5 items required for generating CPS scores. Cognitive impairment was defined by MMSE scores adjusted for education. Agreement between the CPS and the MMSE in identifying cognitively impaired subjects was then evaluated. The CPS showed substantial agreement with the MMSE in the identification of cognitive impairment; the sensitivity was .94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: .90, .98), the specificity was .94 (95% CI: .87, .96), and the diagnostic accuracy as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was .96 (95% CI: .88, 1.0). The MDS Cognitive Performance Scale, when performed by a trained research nurse using recommended protocols, provides a valid measure of cognitive status in nursing home residents.
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              Measurement, correlates, and health outcomes of medication adherence among seniors.

              To provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the measurement, correlates, and health outcomes of medication adherence among community-dwelling older adults. Searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases for English-language literature (1966-December 2002) were conducted using one or more of the following terms: elderly, adherence/nonadherence, compliance/noncompliance, medication/drug, methodology/measurement, and hospitalization. From the above search, studies of medication adherence in community-dwelling seniors were selected for review along with relevant publications from the reference lists of articles identified in the initial database search. Although several methods are available for the assessment of adherence, accurate measurement continues to be difficult. The available evidence suggests that polypharmacy and poor patient-healthcare provider relationships (including the use of multiple providers) may be major determinants of nonadherence among older persons, with the impact of most sociodemographic factors being negligible. There is little consensus regarding other determinants of nonadherence. Relatively few high-quality investigations have examined the associations between nonadherence and subsequent health outcomes. Available data provide some support for increased health risks with nonadherence. However, interventions to improve adherence have seldom demonstrated positive effects on health outcomes. There are few empirical data to support a simple systematic descriptor of the nonadherent patient. The inconsistencies across studies may be attributable, in part, to the inherent difficulties involved in the measurement of a behavioral risk factor such as nonadherence. Future research in this area would be strengthened by incorporation of detailed assessments of patient-reported reasons for nonadherence, the appropriateness of drug regimens, and the effect of nonadherence on health outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drugs & Aging
                Drugs & Aging
                Springer Nature
                1170-229X
                2006
                2006
                : 23
                : 4
                : 345-356
                Article
                10.2165/00002512-200623040-00007
                © 2006

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